WALS Conference 2016 Programme - Paper Presentations 2

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Presentation Code

2A

Title

Improving Learning in the New Curriculum Mathematics through Lesson Study: A London-wide Lesson Study Programme.

Presenter/s

Jean Lang,  Pete Dudley, Nigel Bufton, Kathy Bannon and  Gail Carlyle

Affiliations

 

London Borough of Camden

Type of presentation

Symposium

Strand

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Alumni Auditorium)

Abstract

The Camden: Cambridge New Curriculum Mathematics Lesson Study Program (2013 – 15) aimed to develop a cross school, self-sustaining Lesson Study community of mathematics teachers and lead professionals to prepare for and teach the new mathematics curriculum, leading to improved pupil learning in mathematics. Over 300 teachers and senior leaders from 96 schools across London participated in the project, focusing on developing teaching and curriculum through Lesson Study.

Paper 1. Establishing a System-wide Lesson Study process in Camden, to Address Priorities for Achievement in Mathematics, Capable of Rapid Escalation to Scale. (Jean Lang)

The project addressed the Camden wide priorities for school improvement to develop expert teachers of mathematics who have the mathematical subject and pedagogical knowledge to raise standards at the end of primary school and into secondary school and particularly to:

Improve primary teachers’ higher level subject knowledge of mathematics

Improve primary and secondary teachers’ practice knowledge of how to teach the hardest to learn aspects of mathematics

Build a sustainable school to school, peer-led community of expert teachers to share more widely the new practice knowledge created through these lesson studies.

The project aimed to create a transformation in teacher expectations and mathematics practice, strengthen the ways in which people work together and also school leadership roles. It also hoped to transform how schools organize themselves around Lesson Study based professional learning so that it becomes systemically embedded and cost neutral as it is in Japan and other high performing school systems. The intention was that the resulting capacity, architecture and the community of practice would continue to thrive and develop beyond mathematics to other subjects and for long after the end of this project.

Paper 2: Growing a Borough Wide Scheme of Learning through Lesson Study to Sustain Progress in Mathematics from Primary to Secondary School (Nigel Bufton).

The focus was on improving the teaching and learning of mathematics from Year 5 to 8. The project began by placing attention on those areas of mathematics known to be hard to teach and hard to learn. It allowed teachers time to engage in the planning, analysis and review with support from experts in mathematics education and in Lesson Study. Participant teachers had time to develop their understanding of Lesson Study and refine their teaching over three LS cycles each year. A log was kept and video recordings of LS discussions were made to provide evidence of how the pupils’ learning and the teachers’ pedagogy developed iteratively together during the project. 

Teachers’ mathematical development was surveyed prior to and at the end of the program. The areas of mathematics chosen at the start soon highlighted core aspects of teaching mathematics that transcended the particular topics and these became the teachers’ choices as they applied their learning to broader aspects such as problem solving and reasoning. The project revealed that through the Lesson Study there was a positive impact on teachers’ own knowledge of mathematics and the links between pedagogy and subject knowledge became more transparent.

Teachers valued time to plan collaboratively in depth and to analyze pupils’ learning through the eyes of colleagues; and they developed a greater awareness of how to teach mathematics in more practical and personalized ways as a result of pupil agency in the lesson studies.

Paper 3: Developing Rigorous and Sustainable Lesson Study as the Basis for Whole School Professional Learning and Development in Inner London: The Case of Richard Cobden Primary School, Camden (Kathy Bannon and Gail Carlyle).

Developing and improving schools requires precise well informed decision making.  Investment of resources and time in this must be justified by visible impact on achieving outcomes that make a positive difference in our pupils’ learning and lives.  Our most powerful resource in achieving this is the expertise, subject knowledge and practice of our teachers.

We introduced lesson study with the intention of creating sustainable professional development; putting teachers at the heart of using evidence based action research to evaluate the impact of their teaching on their pupils’ learning. 

Lesson Study enabled us to establish a culture of trust and openness where measured risks could be taken to develop pedagogy and practice, and where collective accountability for outcomes resulted in the creation of a dynamic and motivated teaching team with a transformed approach to self-development and school improvement.  It enabled our teachers and leaders to refine and improve the processes through which school improvement priorities and staff development are determined.   Ultimately school-wide Lesson Study has facilitated the creation of a school-wide learning community where performance management and professional development are intrinsically linked to pupil outcomes.  Lesson study has created a culture where pupils and teachers learn about their learning together.      

Presentation Code

2Ba

Title

The Effectiveness of Lesson Study as a Professional Development Approach for Empowering Omani Cycle One Teachers

Presenter/s

Shaikha Al Shabibi and Edward Moran

Affiliations

 

 University of Stirling (United Kingdom)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Red)

Abstract

The literature in the Omani context reveals that the most frequent professional developmental practices of Omani EFL teachers are workshops, preparing materials and observing colleagues.  Therefore, the researcher suggested enhancing more collaborative professional development practice in the future. As professionals, teachers are expected to improve their own teaching strategies through sharing experience with their colleagues through participating in collaborative process such as lesson study. The principal of lesson study and its effectiveness on teachers professional development is advocated by Stigler & Hiebert (1999) who pointed out that lesson study is based on the collaboration of teachers to improve their pedagogical practice by observing other teachers teach and share knowledge. On this basis, lesson study, as stated by (Dudley, 2015), requires teachers to plan, observe and then subsequently meet to reflect strategies for improving future lessons. My particular focus in this study is: “Can any development be observed in teachers’ ability to critically reflect on their teaching performance during post-class conferences over the period of the study?”

The following questions will be explored in the study:

1. What evidence, if any, can be found of development in the ability of teachers to critically reflect on classroom performance?

2. Can development be observed in conference spoken interaction within conferences and/or over time from conference to conference?

3. Can development be observed in teachers’ written reflections within conferences and/or over time from conference to conference?

Three female teachers, who teach grades1-4 in Cycle One Basic Education school, are engaged in the study. Qualitative measures are used to collect data included transcriptions of lesson study discussions, teachers’ interviews and researchers’ field notes. Teachers reflections in post class conference indicate that the collaborative environment throughout the lesson study process empower them to gain insights on how to change teaching strategies in the classroom. Findings will be set beside those from previous studies and recommendations made for future research. Excerpts from teachers’ self-reflection will be shared with the audience. 

Through this study, the researcher hopes to develop an understanding of the importance of lesson study model upon teachers teaching growth. This study, as the first time to be implemented in the Sultanate of Oman, might contribute to the existing body of knowledge on how to improve teachers' professional development through collaborative teaching.



Presentation Code

2Bb Download

Title

Lesson Study as Professional Development Process in Mathematics for Elementary Teachers in Portugal

Presenter/s

Marisa Quaresma and João Pedro da Ponte

Affiliations

 

 University of Lisbon (Portugal)

Institute of Education

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm ( Newman Red )

Abstract

Teachers’ participation in Lesson Studies may yield significant changes in their practice, leading to improvements in mathematics learning. Lesson studies have been adapted worldwide to fit different contexts and aims. Underlying our experiences in Portugal, we follow an exploratory or inquired based perspective for mathematics learning with focus on reasoning. In this approach students work with tasks for which they do not have an immediate solution method (closed or open problems), constructing their own methods using previous knowledge. Focusing on reasoning we pay special attention to the students’ formulation of strategies, generalizations and justifications. Conducting such exploratory mathematics teaching is a serious challenge for teachers, demanding specific knowledge, competency and disposition. In this study we aim to know if a lesson study based on a curriculum exploratory perspective promotes teachers’ professional development, regarding selecting tasks and leading classroom communication aiming to develop students’ mathematics reasoning, and regarding teachers’ professional reflection and collaboration. The methodology is qualitative, using participant observation. The participants are two independent groups of grade 1-4 teachers of a school in Lisbon and another school in a rural area, 60 km away from Lisbon involved in a lesson study. Data collection was made through audio/video recording of the sessions, teachers’ written reflections, individual and group interviews, and a research journal made by a member of the research team. Data analysis began by identifying significant moments in the sessions, interviews and the final collective reflection, looking at the transcripts and, where appropriate, at video recording. Then, we classified and sought to interpret the episodes relating to teachers’ learning about tasks, communication and reasoning that we consider of most interest. As data analysis strategies we used the analytic induction, constant comparison and typology categorization trying in this way to conceptualize from the data. The two experiences that we report have different dynamics but show that this is a teacher education process that involves a strong relation with practice, as teachers solve mathematical tasks, analyze possible students’ difficulties, and observe how they respond in the classroom. This was carried out through collaboration and reflection activities, as a practitioner’s research process. By participating in this lesson study, focusing on mathematical tasks and on students’ reasoning, the teachers had many opportunities to get involved in doing mathematics through exploratory approach. They discussed the features of tasks that make them simple exercises or more engaging problems or explorations as well as features of reasoning processes such as justification and generalization. Anticipating possible difficulties of students and looking at what they actually do in the classroom were key features of lesson study that were effective in leading the teachers to reflect and consider changes in their practice to conduct a more exploratory teaching in their classrooms. This led to significant learning regarding the nature of the tasks, students’ reasoning processes, and classroom communication.




Presentation Code

2Ca Download

Title

A Study of Primary Teachers’ Practices in Mathematics

Presenter/s

Valérie Batteau

Affiliations

 

 Haute Ecole Pédagogique Lausanne (Switzerland)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

 Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Forum Seminar Room 1)

Abstract

Our research intends to study the evolution of primary teachers’ practices through the analysis of the effects of a training and research process in mathematics: lesson study (LS). In this LS, the group consists of eight primary teachers ranging from experienced, voluntary and generalist teachers, and two coaches. The LS process occurs over two years with two collective sessions occurring per month in Lausanne (Switzerland). Teachers are involved in a professional development training in mathematics. How can this process modify teachers’ practices? What is going to change in their practices? What is going to resist in their practices?

We will present the theoretical framework, research questions and methodology in a first part and our analysis of teachers’ practices in a second part.

Teachers’ practices are analyzed using the theoretical framework: the double approach (Robert & Rogalski, 2002, 2005) based on a French didactical approach and an ergonomic approach (Leplat, 1997) based on activity theory. In this framework, teachers’ practices are seen as a complex, coherent and stable system. Regularities are observed in teachers’ practices during three important moments of teacher’s activity (process of devolution, regulation and institutionalization (Brousseau, 1997)) and correspond to teachers’ strategies and choices. In the ergonomic approach, the main goal is to distinguish prescribed work (the prescribed task, or what the teacher must do) and real work (the conducted task, or what the teacher does in reality). To appropriate the prescribed task, the teacher should modify it. We study the teacher’s activity as a process of modifications between tasks (Leplat, 1997; Mangiante, 2007). The prescribed task includes the mathematic task, the mathematical knowledge, the lesson plan and the planning material. The prescribed task is analyzed a priori: we study the mathematic knowledge at play in the task, the possible resolutions and the didactical variables. Then, we analyzed the proceedings of the conducted task.

The first cycle of LS was about numeration, we analyzed Anaïs’ practices. The second cycle of LS was about geometry, we analyzed Oceane’s practices. The third and fourth cycles of LS were about problem solving and we analyzed Valentine’s practices.

Presentation Code

2Cb

Title

Sharing Emotions through Lesson Study: Cultivating Professional Capital and Professional Learning Communities of Teachers

Presenter/s

Yuu Kimura

Affiliations

 

University of Fukui (Japan)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm ( Forum Seminar Room 1)

Abstract

Professional learning communities and professional capital of teachers are key concepts in the educational change and reform. In professional capital, decisional and social capital has strong effects of cultivating human capital (Hargreaves & Fullan, 2012). Especially, establishing professional learning communities in schools comes to cultivating social capital and facilitates professional development of teachers. In this sense, lesson study that teachers socially interact and talk about their practices is one of the key activities, which cultivate professional capital of teachers.

But, in preceding studies, we could not show sufficient evidences that lesson study cultivates professional learning communities in schools. Now is the time for inquiring how do we establish strong professional learning communities in our schools, how do lesson study effects on cultivating strong professional learning communities and professional capital of teachers, and what happened in teachers' professional dialogue in lesson study that cultivate professional learning communities.

This study examined how does sharing emotional practices of teachers through lesson study link to cultivating professional learning communities and professional capital. The reason why this study focused on sharing emotional practice of teachers is that emotions are integral to building strong professional learning communities that are more than just meetings about assigned tasks, but an energizing way for professionals to inquire into practice together (Hargreaves & Kimura, 2015). Japanese teachers have a long history of effective collaboration, as, in its highly regarded procedures of lesson study as sharing their emotions. The data were gathered by combining interviews with 20 teachers, and observations of Lesson Study in 3 schools. The following findings were obtained.

First, the interview data showed that teachers accept their anxiety occurred from uncertainty of the class and enhance motivation toward challenging new teaching or professional development by sharing their emotional practices, such as embarrassed or enjoyed experience of the class by professional dialogue. Second, the lesson study observations showed that teachers reflect students’ learning process concretely and build their trust relationships, shared school vision and multi-membership by sharing their emotions, especially talking about fun and good experiences of the class in lesson study.

These findings showed that sharing emotions and emotional reflections of teachers in lesson study stimulate their professional and organizational learning, and enable them to commit to a big picture of their schools. Therefore, sharing emotions through lesson study may build strong professional learning communities in schools.

Presentation Code

2Cc

Title

Rethinking the Provision of Continuing Professional Development in Saudi Arabia from Training to Learning: Science Teachers’ Perspectives: Science Teachers’ Perspectives

Presenter/s

Nasser Mansour and Fahad Alshaya

Affiliations

 

The University of Exeter

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices

Time/Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm ( Forum Seminar Room 1)

Abstract

The aims of the study were to provide a baseline of teachers’ previous experience of Continuing Professional Development (CPD), and their future expectations. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to investigate science teachers’ perceptions of CPD and to identify the factors that could influence their perceptions. The study also sought to identify whether there were differences between the perceptions of science teachers in primary, intermediate and secondary schools.

We focus on a group of teachers who were part of science professional development programs or workshops and explore the teachers’ conceptions of these programs or workshops, its meaning for them and their work, and its impact on their classroom practices and students over the period of intervention and beyond.

Research questions

What are science teachers' views of CPD provision in Saudi Arabia?

How do teachers share their CPD experiences?

What are teachers’ perspectives of the contextual issues that have an impact on putting the learning emerging from the CPD programs into practice?

Research methods

The study used mixed methods (closed-ended and open-ended questionnaires and interviews) with Saudi Arabian science teachers (primary-intermediate-secondary) framed by a socio-cultural perspective.

Research sample

A total of 304 teachers responded to the opened- questionnaires. There were 93 male teachers and 211 females. They were asked a range of questions about their personal experiences of CPD, and their reflections on CPD within the present education system in Saudi Arabia. Additionally, we carried out nine interviews with science teachers (three females and six males).

Findings and conclusion.

This study argues that science teachers’ voices concerning their professional development needs should be the key guide for their CPD. The findings of the study indicate that CPD for teachers is essential in creating effective schools. Teachers’ voices expressed the importance of shifting from a ‘top-down’ model of policy-making and practices regarding preparing CPD, to one that involves a greater level of participation from the practitioners. This might shed light on why teachers were either able or unable to put the aspects of their CPD training into practice.

The arguments presented emphasized that teachers should voice their perceptions about professional development and practices, and researchers should consider the socio-cultural-political contexts when interpreting or understanding teachers’ voices.

Presentation Code

2Da

Title

The Use of the Malay Language as the Medium of Teaching and the Role of Peers to Understand Mathematical Concept during the Teaching and Learning Process

Presenter/s

Aini Haziah Amirullah and  Zanaton M.Ikhsan

Affiliations

 

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia)

The Faculty of Education

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

 Creating knowledge in practice; action research and other practice based research approaches

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm  (Forum Seminar Room 2)

Abstract

Language is an important element in the process of understanding a concept. However, not all students master the language used as the medium of teaching, during the process of teaching and learning in the classroom. Thus, this study aims to identify the approach used by the students to understand mathematical concepts and strategies used by mathematics teachers who use Malay as the medium of teaching the students who are not fluent in Malay. The case study was conducted in a secondary school in Rantau, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Respondents consisted of 20 students in a class 12 Indian and 8 Chinese. Data was collected through observation during teaching and interviews, to show how Indians and Chinese students in this class were using their peers to understand the concepts being taught by the teacher. Peers who can speak Malay translate directly to the instructions given by the teacher. The strategy used by teachers in this context is 1) used of teaching aids in the form of colorful cards numbers 2) reduction of the use of long sentences so that the concept can be clearly shown 3) introduction of the terms used before the process of teaching and learning. This study implies that teachers who do not master the mother tongue of students, must find suitable strategies for students who do not master the language medium used in the process of teaching and learning. The school is required to carry out various activities to provide opportunities for students to use the Malay language as the language used as a medium for teaching and learning. 

   

Presentation Code

2Db

Title

Utilizing Student Voice in Practice-based Research to Promote Reading and Reading Engagement for Disadvantaged Students

Presenter/s

Clarence Ng

Affiliations

 

Australian Catholic University (Australia)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Creating knowledge in practice; action research and other practice based research approaches

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm  (Forum Seminar Room 2)

Abstract

Students from culturally, linguistically, and economically disadvantaged backgrounds in Australia have persistently performed at relatively low levels in national and international testing on reading literacy. Urgent attention is required to look for new models to promote reading and reading engagement for disadvantaged students.  . The research focus is on utilizing students’ views and perspectives in a practice-based research that aims to develop reformative practices to motivate disadvantaged students to read with interest, confidence and a sense of purpose.    Twelve primary school teachers (Years 5 and 6) and their classes from two disadvantaged schools in Brisbane joined this year-long study.  These teachers worked through an action learning cycle with deepened focus on understanding students’ needs and their classroom experiences. A special feature of this practice-based research is the utilization of student voice to inform professional learning through an action research framework that systematically engages teachers in reflection, planning, experimentation, and evaluation. Learning support was provided to the teachers by the research team. The data set included three rounds of teacher interviews, a series of classroom observations on teachers’ implementation of new practices, meeting records and memos, and interviews with selected students. The analytical process followed a qualitative approach, coding three rounds of teacher interviews (primary data) and grouping codes into analytical themes. The analytical focus was on understanding teachers’ views and experiences in this practice-based research that highlighted the role of student voice. Observation reports and student interviews (secondary data) were used to verify teachers’ reported experiences in using students’ views to guide their reform efforts. This paper describes teachers’ reported experiences in the practice-based reform and how student voices have been used to promote teacher reflection and learning.  In particular, student voices were utilised in three specific ways:  1. challenging teachers’ understanding of issues related to learning and teaching of reading; 2. informing the design of new practices; and 3. reflecting on change and evaluating success. The results will contribute to the development of a collaborative model of professional learning driven by partnership with students and valuing students’ perspectives. Lesson studies and traditional practice-based research often focus exclusively on what teachers can do to improve their teaching without giving due attention to students’ voices in the reform process. The current research addresses this gap and promotes the use of student voice as a tool for steering practice-based research.

Presentation Code

2Dc

Title

Humanities Lesson Study – Flipped Classroom Approach

Presenter/s

Derrick Teo Teo Eng Hwatt Derrick,  Catherine Bok Bok Kexin, Wee Onn Tong Wee Onn

Affiliations

 

 Bukit Batok Secondary (Singapore)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Creating knowledge in practice; action research and other practice based research approaches

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm  (Forum Seminar Room 2)

Abstract

The teaching of Social Studies in Singapore has always faced challenges since its inception as an examinable subject in 2001. (Wong, 2000) The then Prime Minister of Singapore, Mr. Goh Chok Tong, (Goh,1996),  had stressed the importance of teaching National Education to the younger generation as they were lacking in the knowledge and understanding of Singapore’s early years to nationhood. The teaching of Citizenship Education is not unique to Singapore as it already takes place in other education systems all round the world. However, what is challenging in the Singapore context is the students’ misperception that the subject lacks real world application and relevance. This misperception and the consequent attitudes towards the subject make the teaching of Citizenship Education more challenging as the students’ lack of interest causes disengagement with the subject leading to a gap in learning.

A Lesson Study project was initiated to examine the hypothesis that the teaching of Social Studies could be improved if students were engaged with the subject and to make it more relevant to their lives. As part of the engagement process, we adopted a teaching pedagogy which included the Flipped classroom approach as well as the use of open-ended and critical thinking questions.

The establishment of the baseline for the student’s level of engagement with the subject was done via a questionnaire on both local and global current affairs. The target students were from the secondary 3 level (equivalent to year 9 in England/Wales). The questionnaire took into account both their quantitative and qualitative responses.  In addition, a quiz was administered to identify their level of preparedness.  These findings were indicative of their level of interest and engagement with the subject. Research was also conducted on the proper application of the Flipped classroom approach.

Open-ended and thinking questions were used during lessons. To engage students in critical reflection, students were prompted to make value judgements and assessments of different points of view towards case studies or scenarios. This was designed to raise the awareness that the skills acquired during the Social Studies curriculum were transferable for future learning contexts. The Flipped classroom was used to test the assertion that empowering students with the ownership of learning would increase their level of engagement.

After one semester of Lesson Study and modifications to the adopted pedagogy and questioning techniques, we were able to observe a correlation between better lesson engagement and interest levels.

Presentation Code

2E Download

Title

Competence-oriented Foreign Language Education: Making Competence-uptake Visible through Lesson Study

Presenter/s

Claudia Mewald,  John Elliott, Helen Heaney, Karin Rath, Irene Reiter and Sabine Wallner

Affiliations

 

University College of Teacher Education Lower Austria

National and International Cooperations and Research

Type of presentation

Symposium

Strand

Creating knowledge in practice; action research and other practice based research approaches

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Peter Chalk Room 2)

Abstract

This symposium presents a study which aimed at making a competence-oriented approach to teaching and learning English as foreign language visible in practice. Four case studies are used to exemplify a theory that defines and frames competence-oriented teaching and learning and to demonstrate how the learners’ competence development was made tangible within 3-4 Lesson Study cycles.

The study engaged teachers and experts in a collaborative process of planning, implementing and analyzing observed and video-recorded lessons. The analysis and interpretation of data, which captured the communication between the learners and teachers in the classroom and the communication between the experts and the teachers in post-lesson meetings, was guided by a set of criteria derived from a theoretical model of communicative competence and a set of descriptors aiming at competence-oriented learning. Collaborative planning and teaching developed into a process of adaptation and variation. This symposium tries to discuss the process in the light of video sequences.                                                        

The design of the study followed ten steps:

(1) The teachers and experts selected competence descriptors and drew up plans for study lessons to cover the various competence areas.

(2) Experts collected theoretical background information to guide planning and learning. During this process, special attention was paid to intended strategy development and use.

(3) Based on theoretical frameworks, experts and teachers developed initial study lesson plans which were discussed and adapted by the study group.

(4) After the first implementation experts and teachers analyzed the observed learning and agreed on revised plans, which were adapted a third time after the second implementation in smaller teams.

(5) Finally, the plans were discussed and fine-tuned in the large study group and the study lessons were implemented a fourth time and video-recorded.

(6) The video footage was viewed and discussed by experts and teachers. A first selection of sequences was considered to provide good examples for competence development.

(7) All pre-selected sequences were viewed collaboratively and the team agreed on scenes that would make competence-uptake visible.

(8) Lesson transcripts were interpreted collaboratively taking into consideration the underlying competence model to create better understanding of the teaching and learning processes and teacher(s)-learner(s) and learner-learner communication.

(9) The analysis of the transcripts was concluded with an adaptation of the final lesson plans to match the video-clips, which were intended to become prototypical samples of competence-oriented learning.

(10) The theoretical background was revised and questions were written to guide reflection on the video-recorded study lessons.

The four case studies demonstrate how collaborative planning and comparative lesson analysis helped teachers and researchers to understand competence-oriented teaching and learning. The presenters have selected examples that were influenced by different teacher, learner, and relational variables which had an impact on learning.

A meta-analysis of all lessons in the study provides a set of criteria that creates a model of competence-oriented foreign language learning. The presenters believe that this model has potential for intensifying communicative language learning.

Case Study 1:

This case study explores how different reading strategies can be used to understand a short literary text with the help of a task-feedback cycle in combination with visual input (e.g. images and silent viewing of the screen adaptation). By bringing extensive reading into the classroom instead of relegating its status to that of homework, one of the longer-term aims is to encourage pupils to discover the pleasure of reading in a second language.<br />

Case Study 2: This case study describes how lower intermediate learners can improve their fluency and accuracy in text production through process writing. Its focus is on the implementation of lexical notebooks and their use in collaborative writing. Special attention is given to the role of lexical range in language production and how the Lesson Study spurred the development of lexical priming and the learners’ productive potential.

Case Study 3:

This case study investigates the role of formulaic language in speaking activities. The focus is on planning varieties of meaningful real life interactions where the use of chunks is encouraged. The study explores various creative speaking opportunities for practicing the same set phrases and words in order to establish routine and confidence when interacting in the target language. The chunks produced by the learners during their speech acts are analyzed and evaluated.

Case Study 4:

This case study reports on the difficulties that experts face when they try to convince practitioners that “doing listening” should be replaced by a strategic approach. Data from collaborative planning and post-lesson discussions are presented and an analysis of the final study lesson is provided to demonstrate an understanding for teaching listening competence or the lack of such. The interpretation focuses on the need to develop a model of strategy instruction which emphasizes interventions to teach listening strategies.

Presentation Code

2Fa

Title

Learning Economics Through Discussion – What and How Critical Aspects of the Object of Discussion May or May Not Emerge

Presenter/s

Rodziah Abdul Wahab

Affiliations

 

Universiti Brunei Darussalam (Brunei)

Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education (SHBIE)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Learning studies

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Purple)

Abstract

Committed to students’ roundtable discussions (RTs) on economic issues, as a teacher, I am exploring the conditions under which such discussion may lead to learning. There is no guarantee that anyone learns through discussions. Booth & Hultén (2003) suggest that dimensions of variation can be opened in a discussion thus affording learning. Learning occurs when more than one dimension of variation are opened and juxtaposed together simultaneously. Ingerman et al (2009, 2013) look for critical instances of ‘threads of learning’ in analyzing conversations, and have shown students do not necessarily learn in group discussions. I am using phenomenographic approach in seeking to identify threads of discussion, which juxtaposed opened dimensions of variation in relation to critical aspects of the object of the discussion. My research questions are on ‘what and how’ students learns (if at all) through group discussion in an economics classroom. I started off thinking that group discussions would provide good learning experiences for students studying economics. When I looked at it closely, I could see they were not learning or if they were, it was ‘luck’ - where I was acting as a teacher in the RTs, as problematic as the students were, in the sense that I was also taking part in bringing threads in the conversations, which did not go anywhere. In my research, I have conducted a full circle of roundtable discussions (RTs) - from where little or no learning takes place and the teacher adds to the confusion of conversational threads almost in desperation, to no teacher involvement, to attempting to open variation by carefully designing the stimulus material for discussion, and to where I am now exploring. I am looking at what exactly is the role of the teacher in supporting discussion as the communicative carrier of what is before the group; at any time in the discussion and linking that, to what took place earlier in the discussion to help students understanding - through differentiation (the ‘Variation Theory’) along still-opened dimensions. In my findings, the student discussion group members have told me that they do not want a 'traditional' teacher because they control discussions and that the teachers’ views defer to the students thus, closing the discussion in their direction. In this paper I report on a study of pre-university students' discussions on an economic issues - that is on ‘Austerity versus Quantitative Easing’ as macro-economic policies.

Presentation Code

2Fb Download

Title

What Makes Rate of Change a Single Quantity?

Presenter/s

Per Håkansson

Affiliations

 

 Jönköping University (Sweden)

School of Education and Communication

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Learning studies

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Purple )

Abstract

The aim of this presentation is to show tentative results from the first of a series of Learning studies in a research project about rate of change and derivative.

Even young children are able to use rate of change to make predictions, for example about their height in six months’ time. With such a starting point, one might imagine that this initial conception could be easily developed. If a mathematically consistent idea of rate of change is created, this can eventually lead all the way to the concept of derivative. Unfortunately, many students view the latter as nothing more than a set of memorable algebraic rules in order to differentiate. We suspect that by focusing on certain perspectives of rate of change prior to teaching about derivative, such one sided view can be prevented and a deeper conceptual understanding facilitated. The research project’s point of departure is the lack of consistency between students’ conceptions of rate of change and the derivative.

We believe that by focusing on rate of change as a quantity of its own, teachers can facilitate a long-term development towards a conceptual understanding of the derivative. The aim of the first Learning study is therefore to discover what aspects of the rate of change must be discerned by the students in order to express it as a single quantity.

The research group, comprising the researcher and two mathematics teachers, will conduct three learning studies at the secondary school level from spring 2016 to spring 2017. The objects of learning involve the interval, the point specific, and the co-varying perspectives of rate of change by using both linear and non-linear functions.

The framework used for designing the lessons as well as for analyzing students’ conceptions and learning outcome, is variation theory. According to this, learning can take place when certain critical aspects of the object of learning are discerned simultaneously by the learner. By unpacking the object of learning through the iterative design of lesson/learning study, we try to explore these aspects in detail.

This research can contribute important knowledge for teaching rate of change consistent with further conceptual development, and which eventually concerns the derivative. Furthermore, the research can exemplify how the developmental possibilities of a mathematical idea can be maintained throughout different levels of education, by focusing on relationships between concepts.

Presentation Code

2Fc

Title

Pick the Pic - it´s Critical, it´s Science! A Learning Study in Science Concerning the Conservation of Matter

Presenter/s

Helen Karlsson,  Ulrika Gustafsson and  Camilla Weiler

Affiliations

 

Hallsta Skola (Sweden)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Learning studies

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Purple)

Abstract

The aim of our paper presentation is to highlight the role of pictures in students’ textbooks in science. Do the pictures give students possibilities to develop knowledge or not?  

In the Swedish national test in science (chemistry) in year 2014, for students in the sixth grade, one task regarding the conservation of matter. There was a picture of a goblet with ice in it, with a tightly lid. The total weight of the goblet with ice was specified. The task was about the goblet with the ice would change the weight when the ice melted to water. The students were supposed to answer if theweight for the goblet would be: heavier, lighter or equal compared to the initial weight?

We thought this task would be easy for our students, but it wasn’t obvious for the students that the weight would be the same. We wondered why? At this point we found that we have taken something for granted concerning the students’ knowledge respect to conservation of matter.

This was the start for our Learning Study. During the study we learned a lot concerning the students’ conceptions regarding molecules and how matter is structured. However, one importantdiscoveryfor us, is concerning the pictures that is common in many science textbooks. The picture is showing molecules in the three phases (Picture 1).

Picture 1. Phase transitions.

Which perceptions may pictures like this develop for students? In Picture 1 you can clearly see that there are different amount molecules, apparently in the same volume, in the different phases.

Can this develop perceptions that matter actually changes the amount of molecules when it changes phase?

How can teachers relate to this? What is necessary for the students to discern? We talked about the weight, but never about the volume with our students. Maybe we should have used the Variation Theory and the variation pattern different. Maybe we would have talked about volume simultaneous with the weight and amount molecules?

Presentation Code

2Ga Download

Title

Effectiveness of Intensive Study of Teaching/Learning Materials to Enhance Teaching of Science Practicals in Zambian Schools: Case of Kapiri Zone

Presenter/s

Emelia Kunda Kasonde and  George Chileya

Affiliations

 

Kapiri Girls National Technical Secondary School (Zambia)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 3: 2.1-2.3)

Abstract

Practical examinations in science at junior level in Zambian schools were introduced in the revised curriculum of 2013 as a mandatory and examinable component of the subject. Learners who are in grade 9 are expected to write a science practical paper in addition to theory papers. Equally, teachers who handle learners at this level are expected to have knowledge and skills to help learners acquire the practical skills.  However, generally, science practicals have not been a common practice for   learners in most Zambian primary schools and learners, therefore, come with ‘heard’ knowledge without or with very few skills on handling the practicals. Similarly, science teachers at junior secondary have little or no skills to conduct practicals to prepare learners as a requirement in the revised curriculum. In 2015, two science teachers in Zambia lost their lives in a laboratory during preparation of science practicals without following safety measures. To this   effect, a deliberate program was initiated by Teacher Education Department of the Ministry of General Education to orient teachers on science practicals through intensive study of teaching/learning materials using Lesson Study approach.  The   purpose of   the research was to pursue the effectiveness of the learner-centered lesson approach in Science practicals at junior secondary school in fostering learner performance. As a comparative study, 18 teachers of integrated science were observed in Kapiri zone. 9 teachers at school A were exposed to the Lesson Study practice while 9 teachers at school B were not. Additionally, examination results of 866 grade 9 learners who were handled by the two categories of teachers were analysed to assess their performance. Assessment tests, final examination results, lesson observations and questionnaires were used to collect data.  Results from the research show a significant correlation between teacher’s knowledge on practical skills and learner knowledge on handling science practicals. Furthermore, the performance of learners who were handled by teachers exposed to practices of intensive study of teaching/learning contents or materials was higher than that of learners handled by teachers who had not been exposed to this approach. Recommendations are discussed in this paper.

Presentation Code

2Gb

Title

Lesson Study to Improve Processes and Learning Outcomes For Elementary School Teachers in Labschooll State University of Jakarta Indonesia

Presenter/s

Herlina Usman

Affiliations

 

State University of Jakarta (Indonesia)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

 Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm ( Peter Chalk Rm 3: 2.1-2.3)

Abstract

Lesson Study is an approach to improving the quality of learning undertaken by teachers collaboratively with key steps in designing learning to achieve the goal to improve the learning process and results are implemented in a collaborative and sustained by a group of teachers. The main objective of  Lesson Study, (1) gain a better understanding of how students learn and teachers teach; (2) obtain certain results that are beneficial to other teachers in implementing the learning; (3) systematically enhance learning through collaborative inquiry; (4) establish a pedagogical knowledge, where a teacher can gain knowledge from other teachers. Stages in the lesson study process implementation, namely: First, teachers are more open to the outside world, the classroom is not locked to should not accept another teacher to see what teachers do every day working in the learning process is performing. Second,   teachers will learn from each other and work together in improving the quality of the learning process through increased understanding not only of the material but also the methods, media and teaching aids, as well as an assessment technique used in the learning process. Third, with the best practice, teachers will be trained to be able to try to generate new innovations in learning, through suggestions for improvement given by his colleague also through creativity - creativity that later appeared in instructional practices. Fourth, the final results are expected to be acquired through this lesson study is a learning process more effective and efficient, are thus expected to improve student learning outcomes.  Therefore the focus of lesson study is the study of learning in order to find the best practices for improving student learning outcomes based on several stages in the learning process observed performed by teachers in primary schools Labschool Rawamangun, East Jakarta State University of Jakarta.


Presentation Code

2Gc Download

Title

Our Lesson Study Journey: Teaching Primary 5 Low Progress Students “Percentage as Part of a Whole” Using the CPA approach

Presenter/s

Sook Peng Woong and  Zahrah Ali

Affiliations

 

Eunos Primary School (Singapore)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm ( Peter Chalk Rm 3: 2.1-2.3)

Abstract

Bruner’s (1966) enactive-iconic-symbolic conception of representation is at the heart of the Concrete-Pictorial-Abstract (CPA) approach, a key instructional strategy used in Singapore schools since the 1980s. In this study, a team of mathematics teachers from Eunos Primary School used Lesson Study to examine how the CPA approach could be adapted to support low progress Primary Five students in the learning of Percentage as Part of a Whole. The team explored how these learners could best construct their mathematical understanding of the concept through class discussions on real-life applications of percentages and concretized learning experiences using teachers’ designed manipulative. Underlying our approach to teaching percentage is the belief that these learners understand the abstract concept of percentage better when they see the relevance of the topic in their daily lives. In this paper, we will describe our Lesson Study journey, highlighting some of our challenges and our key learning points. In particular, we will share our thinking behind the design of the lesson idea and how we adapt the CPA approach to meet the needs of our students. We will also share some ideas for other professional learning teams to consider when using Lesson Study as part of their professional development.

Presentation Code

2H

Title

Using Thinking Routines to Facilitate Assessment of Students’ Understanding

Presenter/s

Gladys Li Ching, Ong Bee Phaik ,Chee Kamaliah Othman, Firdaus Mohamed ,David Tan

Affiliations

 

 Tanjong Katong Girls' School (Singapore)

Type of presentation

Symposium

Strand

 Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Green)

Abstract

In alignment to Singapore’s focus on ‘Student-Centric, Values Driven Education’ (SVE), the 21CC framework aims to nurture in our students core competencies and skills of Civic Literacy, Global Awareness and Cross-Cultural Skills; Critical and Inventive Thinking; and Information and Communication Skills to thrive in a VUCA (volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous) world. (Heng, 2012)

With the intent to provide quality teaching and learning in every classroom, Tanjong Katong Girls’ School takes reference from the LCAP Model where the learner (L) is at the centre of our curriculum, anchored by content (C), assessment (A) and pedagogy (P). Adopting the Ministry of Education’s Assessment Philosophy, we believe that (1) Assessment is integral to the learning process (2) Assessment begins with clarity of purpose and (3) Assessment should gather information to inform future practices. As such, our school adopts the thinking routines proposed by Ritchhart et al (2011) in assessing these 21CC with the aim of achieving SVE. 

The three presentations under the disciplines of Geography, Aesthetics and English demonstrate how teachers use thinking routines to make explicit their students’ disciplinary thinking to assess their understanding of 21CC.

Using Routines to Guide Students’ Data Analysis, Interpretation and Representation skills in Geography (Kamaliah Othman)

The geographical inquiry approach requires students to demonstrate (1) reasoning skills when interpreting and analyzing data and (2) critical thinking when representing data in appropriate forms (e.g. bar graphs, etc.) with well-constructed justifications.

Our PLT observed that students generally did not select the most appropriate forms to represent the data gathered/given. This affected their effectiveness in forming meaningful explanations and deep analysis. Consequently, they did not perform well in data-driven assessment tasks.

A pre-test was set to validate this area of concern. We identified students’ areas for improvement by studying their responses to similar tasks. We aimed to investigate if providing structures (e.g. checklists and templates) helped scaffold students’ thinking and enhance their skills in data interpretation, analysis and representation.

A further intent was to make students’ thinking visible through routines, for teachers to address misconceptions and support their learning better (Ritchhart et al, 2011). Our lesson incorporated Socratic questioning techniques and collaborative learning strategies to develop self-directed learning and opportunities for co-constructing understanding. Qualitative data collected include observers’ reflection logs, post-lesson discussion notes and conversation records with students.

Developing Inventive and Critical Thinkers in and through the Aesthetics

Our PLT observed that students lacked the skills necessary to develop critical and inventive thinking.  In response, we adopted four out of ten Capacities for Imaginative Learning developed by Lincoln Center Education (LCE), New York, namely Noticing Deeply, Questioning, Making Connections and Creating Meaning, to guide students to notice details more deeply, ask questions that provoke deeper thinking, make connections of new with prior knowledge, and create their own meaning of what they know and experienced. These skills are necessary for the exploration, inquiry and deeper disciplinary understanding of any works in the Arts.

Using Thinking Routines (e.g. Think-See-Wonder), a series of art and music lessons were developed and conducted to facilitate the development of these capacities amongst students. To assess the level of attainment of identified capacities, we adapted the set of rubrics developed by LCE. Students also used the rubrics for self-assessment on their own development.

Results from students’ self-assessment were triangulated with teachers’ assessment through the use of same rubrics and lesson observations to determine the students’ attainment in these capacities.

‘Disorderly thinking produces disorderly writing […]

orderly thinking produces orderly writing’

(Paul, 1990).

Many students struggle to articulate their ideas and present them clearly to the reader in expository writing. Paul and Elder (2006) argued that for students to develop critical thinking skills, they must develop the ‘ability to formulate, analyze, and assess’ (5) elements that make up thinking.

Ritchhart et al (2011) posit that students must engage in critical thinking and metacognition by learning to identify different types of thinking. Paul et al maintain that critical thinking can be improved if thinking is made more visible through the use of routines. Our study examines the impact of thinking routines (e.g. 4C’s and 3-2-1 Bridges) on improving critical thinking in the expository writing of Secondary 3 students. Our critical thinking rubric was developed from the language area of Writing and Representing in the Secondary EL Syllabus (Singapore).

 Classroom observations and analysis of students’ work show promise in developing language learners who are capable of growing into ‘self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective’ (Paul et al, 2006) critical thinkers.

Presentation Code

2Ia

Title

Implementation Of Lesson Study As A Tool For Teachers’ Reflective Practice

Presenter/s

Mohd Hasani Dali

Affiliations

 

University Utara Malaysia

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/Location

Sat. 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Queen’s Lecture Theatre 2)

Abstract

This qualitative study explored the implementation of Lesson Study, a kind of teacher-directed approach of Japanese model of teachers’ reflective practice in the Malaysian education context. Reflective practice is vital and imperative to enhance teachers’ knowledge in the context of teachers’ learning. The enhancement of teachers’ reflective practice would certainly improve their teaching practices in the classroom. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of lesson study on teachers, specifically on the reflective practice of teachers. Of late, lesson study has been credited in research studies to improve and influence teachers’ teaching and for this reason, there is a strong interest to know if such findings and results could replicate in the Malaysian education context. The influence on teachers’ teaching could be gauged in their reflective practice as these have been acknowledged to have direct influence on teachers’ teaching in the literatures. To probe the influence of lesson study, qualitative case study as the design was employed. The research question gauged the extent of influence on teachers’ reflective practice. Multiple data sources were gathered through in-depth interviews, observations, group discussions and reflections as well as participants’ journal writing. Data sources were gathered through in-depth interviews and observation. Analysis of the qualitative data indicated that the lesson study has provided an encouraging opportunity and venue for the respondent to collaborate, discuss and share their teaching experiences in managing their lesson. Data from the study showed that lesson study has influenced on teachers’ reflective practice to some extent. Again, the degree of influence varies across different individual participating teachers. Findings from this study deduced that lesson study would require perseverance, understanding and commitment from both the teachers and school administrators to foster the culture of teacher learning that is gravely lacking in the Malaysian education context.

Presentation Code

2Ib Download

Title

Effects of Using 5 Steps Learning Process Based on Lesson Study Approach Together with Professional Learning Community on Ability in Mathematic Problem Solving of Grade 4 Students of Satitpattana School

Presenter/s

Phatarapol Lapkiartiporn

Affiliations

 

Satit Pattana School (Thailand)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Sat. 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Queen’s Lecture Theatre 2)

Abstract

The purposes of this research were to investigate the problem solving abilities of Grade 4 students after learning by using 5 Steps learning process and learning by activity with lesson study. The research targets were 23 Grade- 4 Students of Satitpattana School. The members of Professional learning community, researcher, teacher's buddy, mentor, were participated in all 4 steps of lesson study, which were (1) subject matter analyzing, (2) learning activity planning, (3) doing and observing, and (4) reflecting and (5) redesigning. The research instruments were mathematic problem solving abilities evaluation form. Collected data were analyzed by using mean of percentage. The research findings can be summarized as follows:

After implementing 5 Steps learning process and learning by activity with lesson study, the mean of percentage score of students’ problem solving ability was 69.75 percent.

Presentation Code

2Ic

Title

Lesson studies: A Continuing Education Module in Natural Sciences for Primary School Teachers in French-Speaking Switzerland

Presenter/s

Dr. Claire Taissonperdicakis and Denis Haan

Affiliations

 

 HEP   Haute Ecole Pédagogique Vaud (Switzerland)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Sat. 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Queen’s Lecture Theatre 2)

Abstract

The aim of this contribution is to present a Lesson Study (LS) led in 2015-2016. This LS focused on the teaching and learning of natural sciences in 3-4 HarmoS (6-7 year-old pupils). The theme of the LS was related to science inquiry. The team was composed of two teacher-researchers of the University of Teacher Education of Lausanne and six teachers. Both teacher-researchers were members of the team and they were not “knowledgeable others” (Takahashi & McDougal, 2016). They are experts in the fields of natural sciences didactics and education respectively but didn’t have any experience in LS. We are these teacher-researchers.

Two research questions were particularly explored. First, how did LS help teachers implement science inquiries? Second, what role did teacher researchers during the LS? It means to highlight both teachers’ professional development and teacher-researchers’ abilities to collaborate and lead LS.

All sessions including kyouzai kenkyuu, lesson plan and the lesson to be taught in class as well as improvement of the said lesson were filmed. Four lessons were in fact taught in class which were followed by post lesson debriefings. A lesson on matter was taught and taught again. A lesson on equilibrium was taught and taught again. The teachers used IPads as tools to observe how pupils learn and interact. They took electronic notes and snapshots of certain moments. During the collaborative sessions and the post lesson debriefings, teacher-researchers guided the participating teachers with their expert knowledge. This longitudinal study used two information sources, the filmed data and the observations on IPads, to locate significant elements related to research questions started above. These significant elements were transcribed and analyzed in order to highlight some potential evolutions.

The theoretical framework bring together researchers of natural sciences didactics (Astolfi, 2005; Marlot & Morge, 2016), of developmental psychology (Vygotsky 1934/1997; Clot, 2011), researchers in Lesson Study (Murata, 2011; Takahashi, 2014; Takahashi & McDougal, 2016) and in professional development (Uwamariya & Mukamurera, 2005; Desgagné et al., 2001).

First, teachers better control the implementation of the science inquiry. So they increased their teaching science skills. Not only did they sharpen their critical thinking but they also honed their teaching skills on the way to their professional development. Second, the teacher-researchers’ common ground along with their differences turned into a strong collaboration which became a tool for teachers’ professional development. So they increased their collaboration abilities and their expertise to lead LS.

Presentation Code

2Ja

Title

Developing Teachers’ Personal Knowledge Management Competencies through Integrating E-learning Activities in Learning Study Course

Presenter/s

Eric C. K. Cheng

Affiliations

 

The Hong Kong Institute of Education

The Department of Curriculum and Instruction

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Blue)

Abstract

The paper explores how Learning Study, a collaborative action research approach, can be integrated with eLearning activities to enhance personal knowledge management (PKM) competencies of pre-service teachers for effective instructional design and assessment for learning. PKM competencies are conceptualized as knowledge retrieving, organizing, analyzing and collaborative skills for effective learning. The study adopts Cheng’s (2011) PKM model to proposal a curriculum for developing teacher’s PKM skills through a teaching development project conducted in The Hong Kong Institute of Education.

A Solomon four group quasi-experimental research design was adopted to collect data from pre and posttest of PKM measurement from the participants of the Learning Study course. All items were measured using a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Another professional study course is set as the control group. Lesson observation and qualitative interviews were conducted to evaluate the development of the pre-service teacher. The effectiveness of the e-learning activities, the use of PKM tools and the collaborative action research approach were evaluated. Results showed that integrating learning activities in the Learning Study course had impacts on the retrieving, organizing, analyzing skills for instructional design and student assessment.

A set of learning activities for planning the PKM curriculum could be articulated from the result of this study. For example, access databases and websites for information retrieval; operate electronic tools for information integration to design lesson plans; use spreadsheet and statistical software for data and information analysis to assess student learning problems; use collaborative PKM tools to support both synchronous and asynchronous communication for the purpose of collective learning; and construct knowledge that is based on an appropriate understanding of the nature of data, sound inference, and an understanding of potentially meaningful relationships within a data set. To support the sustainable development of teachers as professionals in the knowledge society, teacher education institutions should integrate PKM tools, e-learning activities and collaborative action research into the pre-service teacher education curriculum. This could be of significant assistance to pre-service teachers in retrieving, organizing, analyzing and collaborating around information across all disciplines. If teacher education institutions really want to fully engage pre-service teachers with a professional and lifelong learning process, they should develop pre-service teachers’ PKM competency by making PKM tools available.

Presentation Code

2Jb

Title

Application of Lesson Study Approach Together with PLC to Enhance Non B.Ed. Pre-Service Teachers Abilities in Designing and Implementing Constructivist-Based Science Process Skills Lesson Plan

Presenter/s

Parinda Limpanont Promratana and  Pornthep Chantraukrit

Affiliations

 

Chulalongkorn University (Thailand)

Faculty of Education

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Blue)

Abstract

Teachers in Thailand need to have teaching license and mostly their first degree are Bachelor in Education (B.Ed.). However, some non-B.Ed. graduates are interested in being science teachers, while the shortage of knowledgeable science teachers are one of our main problem. Therefore, the Project for the Promotion of Science and Mathematics Talent Teachers (PSMT) has been developed by the National Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (IPST) for recruiting B.S. graduates into science teacher education to increase the numbers of science teachers.

Under this PSMT project, B.S. graduates from all over the country have been selected by IPST to further their study at the Master Level in the field of Science Education. The Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University has been one of the institutes that get involved in this project.  Therefore, to enhance non B.Ed. graduate students in pedagogical knowledge and practices, Lesson Study approach and Professional Learning Community (PLC) have been applied in Science Process Skills Development Course and Development of Inquiry Ability in Science Education Course. Data were collected by means of classroom action research from eight non-B.Ed. pre-service teachers who studied in these two courses.

The objectives of this research were to investigate these pre-service teachers’ abilities in designing Constructivist Based Science Process skills lesson plan and implementing their lesson plans in classroom. Lesson Study approach together with PLC has been applied to promoted their abilities.

The PLCs comprised 3 groups of 3-3-2 Pre-service Teachers. Each group had two instructors and two external experts as their coaches. The process of LS together with PLC consists of five steps; Analyze, Design & Plan, Do & See, Reflect, and Redesign. 

Research instruments, Ability in Designing Lesson plan Evaluation Form and Classroom Observation Form, were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Percentage, mean score and content analysis were used to analyze the collected data.

After four months implementation, the results showed that:

1) Non B.Ed. pre-service teachers’ abilities in designing and writing constructivist based science process skills lesson plan were at good and very good level.

2) Non B.Ed. pre-service teachers’ teaching performances were at good level.

Presentation Code

2Jc

Title

Reflecting Upon New Learning as a Mean to Identify Hidden Misconceptions

Presenter/s

Eliezer Yariv

Affiliations

 

Gordon College of Education (Israel)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Blue)

Abstract

It is relatively easy to measure students' gradual accumulation of a new material within a sequential mode of teaching and learning. It is more difficult to measure personal gains within experiential programs when the students have been already exposed to similar content elsewhere. Lortie (1975) argued that after 12 years of schooling, student teachers enter their pre-service studies with a solid acquaintance with the teaching profession, often accompanied by many misconceptions. The current study examines how prior knowledge and attitudes interfere with their new learning.

During their pedagogical studies at a teachers college, some 650 undergraduate students attended the author's course on classroom management over the last twelve years. Among other skills, they learned and practiced the 'Discipline and Dialogue' technique (Yariv, 1996), a short teacher-student encounter format that aims to discuss and resolve a discipline problem. At the meeting, the teacher first learn the details, then explore the child's motives, and finally forge together with the student a long-term solution to prevent similar cases in the future. After practicing the tool at their professional development schools, the student teachers are asked to provide a report describing the event and discussing their insights about the child, the tool and about themselves as prospective teachers.

Randomly sampling 40 such reports provided the material for a content analysis in which I extracted any sentence that began with the notion "I learned that…” These sentences may reflect what specific lack of knowledge was filled by the new learning and how the relearning process changed earlier misconceptions about teaching. For example, when a student wrote: "I learned that children's behaviors stem from inner motives that cannot be seen from outside" it reveals her prior ignorance and misconceptions about children thoughts and the 'true' reasons for their conduct.

According to the findings, students learned: (1) that children are not necessarily influenced by the same factors, and their motives cannot be inferred directly from their conduct; (2) how teacher's actions influence children's feelings and attitudes; (3) new ways of talking to children; (4) that listening empathetically is more important than controlling the encounter; (5) how to organize and plan thoughts and actions in advance.

The discussion argues that asking student teachers to reflect upon their learning not only provides them with an important meta-cognitive tool, but also uncovers lack of knowledge and misconceptions that could be addressed by their teacher trainers.

Presentation Code

2Ka Download

Title

Beyond Learning Study

Presenter/s

Henrik Hansson and  Maria Bergqvist

Affiliations

 

Jonkoping University (Sweden)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 1: 1.1-1.3)

Abstract

Since 2003 until today many Swedish teachers have participated in Learning studies. Researchers, teachers and school leaders recognize the positive impact this have had on teachers teaching and students learning. In a Learning study though usually a limited object of learning is studied during a whole semester and therefore the process does not follow the participating teachers’ ongoing teaching. It seems like this limitation makes it difficult for teachers to use the Learning study model in their everyday planning, teaching and evaluating teaching.  After teachers participation in Learning studies they and their school leaders commonly asks how to continuously and collaborate plan and evaluate teaching in their everyday teaching. A group from Gothenburg University whom have extensive experience in conducting Learning studies as researchers and tutors, tried to answer this question by formulate another question: How to help teachers to continuously and collaborate plan and evaluate teaching in a Learning/Lesson study manner, in their everyday teaching? Inspired by the organizational features in Chinese Teachers Research Groups on school level and Learning and Lesson study’s way of study teaching related to students learning, the group developed a new model more suitable for teachers collaborate work in their everyday planning, teaching and evaluating teaching. The main features of the model: 1-2 hours per week dedicated for teachers to collaborate focus their teaching development. Teachers grouped to be able to help each other in their ongoing teaching. One teacher in each group leading the discussions. The teacher leader attends a special education to be able to lead the work and discussions in a Learning/Lesson study manner and make conscious use of a learning theory/theories.  The model was tested and further developed in a pilot project including six schools containing 51 teachers and 6 school leaders in 2014/2015. An evaluation of the project was made where the teachers and school leaders were asked questions about their experiences of participating in this kind of work. All of the teachers and school leaders answered the questions individual in writing and sent there answers for the Gothenburg University group to analyze. The results of the analysis showed that 51/51 teachers and 6/6 school leaders wanted to continue to work in this way. Some of the teachers and school leaders’ reasons were their experience of visible effects on students learning and their experience of becoming more professional teachers regarding their teaching increased taking departure in students’ needs for learning. 2015/2016 several more schools and teachers in Sweden started working like this.

Presentation Code

2Kb

Title

Professional Learning Communities ‘An Organizational Approach’

Presenter/s

Louise Misselke

Affiliations

 

Guernsey College Of Further Education

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 1: 1.1-1.3)

Abstract

Picture an education organization whose purpose was to develop skills and enable students to gain vocational qualifications but where teaching and learning was the lowest priority. Instead, the pervading culture was that of performativity, income generation and cost saving.  A bleak picture painted of the case study organization in 2013.This was an organization whose professional lecturers were not developing their practice; not sharing their practice and not supporting each other.  Importantly, this was an organization where outcomes for students were not in line with best practice. The case study paper will highlight the process organization took in the development of vocational pedagogy. In addition, enabled a culture with a focus on developing teaching and learning, supported experimentation and action research. Where practitioners discuss practice openly and feel a sense of pride about their practice. The case study will describe the processes, pitfalls and outcomes of developing a whole organizational approach to developing practice through a professional learning community (PLC) approach.  Methodology.  The aims of this study; 1. Evaluate the impact of professional learning communities on developing a teaching and learning culture, 2. Review the impact of these approaches on learner attainment. The study was situated in a pragmatic framework and utilized a mixed method approach, and employed survey methods to understand the view of practitioners in the value of PLC’s. In addition learner achievement data was used to track learner improvement. Lastly, we adopted qualitative data analysis methods to review our Lesson Observation scheme in order to understand the impact of this organizational approach to improvement teaching and learning.

Context

 Further education in the United Kingdom is often referred to in literature as the ‘Cinderella Service’ (Bathmaker and Avis, 2005; Fisher, 2010; Gleeson, Davies, and Wheeler, 2005; Mather, Worrall, and Seifert, 2009).   Implications here refer to the perceived lack of investment and government attention and the constant state of flux caused by changing whims of political motivation (Nash et al, 2008; Feather, 2013; Gleeson, Davies, and Wheeler, 2005).  The culture which remains in the wider further education sector places a demand on these professionals for demonstrable excellence in terms of outcomes for learners, and importantly from a commercial perspective, the need to attract ‘customers’ by being able to declare excellence in terms of teaching and learning. The process. The journey to developing a professional learning community framework, brand and way of working will be presented.  The utilization of teaching and learning coaches to facilitate these communities, enabling protected time and providing and organizational framework will be shared.

Outcomes

In 2016 we have 8 PLC groups each has 10-12 regular members. These groups to meet 8 times a year – this meeting time is protected and highlighted on the calendar. The PLC agenda is focused on sharing practice, developing supported experiments, peer observation, lesson study and teaching triads. <BR>Our organizational focus is now on the students and as such teaching and learning are the highest priorities. Our lecturers feel a sense of pride and ownership about their PLC and discuss practice openly the good and bad. We have been successful with the implementation of a developmental and ungraded lesson observation scheme. The overall picture for teaching and learning within our organization has been externally validated as good with excellent features. Our student achievement rate has improved year on year. Importantly practitioners feel valued and listened too and are developing their own professional practice.

Presentation Code

2Kc

Title

Different Focus of Collaboration in a Longitudinal Relation and the Effect on the Perceived Utility of an In-School Teacher Training

Presenter/s

Daniela Rzejak

Affiliations

 

University of Kassel (Germany)

Department of Educational Science

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 1: 1.1-1.3)

Abstract

With regard to theories of adult learning it can be assumed that the perception of utility of a teacher training is essential for teacher professional learning. Research indicates that the perceived utility is positively correlated with satisfaction, changes of knowledge and transfer into practice (e. g. Hustler, McNamara, Jarvis, Londra, & Campbell, 2003; Rzejak, Lipowsky, & Künsting, 2013). However, it has been studied insufficiently, what affects the perception of utility. Teacher collaboration is regarded as another important factor for professional development (Postholm & Wæge, 2016; Vangrieken, Dochy, Raes, & Kyndt, 2015). Despite a terminology inconsistence it seems consensus that teacher collaboration is multidimensional and dynamic. However, it lacks of studies that gives an insight into this phenomenon (Vangrieken et al., 2015). Following concepts of situated learning it can be assumed that deep-level collaboration (e. g. observing each other in classroom, critical examination of teaching) affects the perception of utility and about that the learning processes of teachers (Reusser, 2005).

The first aim of this study is to investigate the longitudinal relation of different focus of collaboration (deprivatization of practice including e. g. mutual classroom observation and feedback of colleagues, subject specific collaboration, and shared focus on students learning) in a cross-legged-panel-design. Second, the effect of collaboration – measured at the beginning of an in-school teacher training – on the perceived utility is analyzed.

The sample derives from the project LIQUID that evaluates the effectiveness of a professional development program called “Vielfalt fördern” (engl: “Promoting diversity”) in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). Data of about 411 teachers from 17 secondary schools are available.

First findings indicate that subject specific collaboration and shared focus on students learning predict another focus of collaboration at a later point in time, whereas deprivatization does not. Also the influence on perceived utility differ between the analyzed focus of collaboration. 

Presentation Code

2L

Title

Supporting School Improvement Through Lesson Study

Presenter/s

Diana Hatchett,  Gillian Jordan ,Gilda Possibile, Louise Matthews Linda Lavagna – Slater and Jill Wright

Affiliations

 

Edge Hill University (United Kingdom)

Type of presentation

Symposium

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Sat 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Queen’s Lecture Theatre 1)

Abstract

This symposium will discuss the implementation, development of a Continuing Professional Development program for teachers, and initial impact of a two -year research project into the introduction of Lesson Study in 75 primary schools in three regions of England.  The Professional Development program was led by Edge Hill University and both this, and the accompanying independent research element, were funded by the Education Endowment Foundation, which aims to close the attainment gap in schools in England by funding, summarizing and sharing evidence of what works in improving the progress and achievement of pupils from poorer backgrounds.   The independent research consists of two elements. A randomized controlled trial by the London School of Economics involves 75 treatment and 75 control schools and designed to examine the impact of Lesson Study on the attainment of pupils in national tests. A process evaluation by the National Institute of Economic and Social Research in a sample of schools examined the qualitative aspects of implementing Lesson Study. The reports of the research will be published in Spring 2017. In this symposium, we shall focus on the development implementation and impact of the two year, large scale Continuing Professional Development program, which aimed to support 75 schools in implementing and embedding Lesson Study as a key part of their approach to school improvement. Contributors to this symposium will include Expert Advisers to the program, University staff, teacher trainers and senior leaders from a primary school, each of whom will lead discussion from this range of perspectives. Elements examined will include:   1. The international research base informing the development of the approaches to Professional Development for teachers and to securing senior leadership engagement in Lesson Study.   2. The focus on school improvement underpinning the program and strategies used to help secure the sustainability of Lesson Study in schools longer term.   3. The structure and content of the Continuing Professional Development program, which covered both the Lesson Study process and high impact pedagogical approaches (metacognition, self-regulation and feedback on learning)    4. The impact of Lesson Study in an inner city primary school in Liverpool in terms of both pupil and teacher learning.   5. Ongoing developments in Lesson Study at Edge Hill University, including an innovative approach to developing ‘Professional Learning Conversations’ with teachers. 

Chair: Gill Jordan  

Paper 1: Di Hatchett and Gill Jordan (Expert Advisers to Edge Hill University)  

This presentation will describe the overall structure and content of the Professional Development Programme and the approach taken to supporting ongoing and sustainable school improvement through Lesson Study. We will summarize the findings from international research, which informed all aspects of this Lesson Study research program and outline the features and timescale for the accompanying independent evaluation processes.

Paper 2: Jill Wright (Deputy Head Teacher, Whitefield Primary School)and Gilda Possibile (Independent Consultant and trainer for the Lesson Study research program).

This presentation will examine the processes and protocols involved in implementing the Lesson Study research program in an inner city primary school in Liverpool. We will describe the way in which teacher learning developed as a result of participation in the program and the subsequent impact on classroom practice and pupil learning and progress. Finally, we will summarize the way in which Lesson Study has become embedded in the school’s overall approach to School Improvement.   

Paper 3: Louise Matthews and Linda LavagnaSlater (National Advisers, Every Child Counts at Edge Hill University)  

This presentation will describe the work of the Every Child Counts Team at Edge Hill University in further developing the features of this Lesson Study research program.  We will describe the embedding within the program of an innovative approach to teacher learning through supporting the development of structured ‘Professional learning Conversations’. The findings of a subsequent small - scale pilot study carried out in primary schools will be summarized and future plans outlined.

Presentation Code

2Ma Download

Title

An Option of Teacher Professional Community Development in Hungary: Lesson/Learning Study

Presenter/s

János Győri,  Brigitta Czók, Marianna Makkai and  Mária Adorjánné Krakkai

Affiliations

 

Eszterházy Károly University (Hungary)

Faculty of Teacher Education and Knowledge Technology

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 4: 2.4-2.6)

Abstract

One of the most interesting aspects of Lesson Study is that, although it was an applied method in Japan and East Asia for a long time, when it became internationally known, it has unusually quickly spread out the US and dozens of other countries all over the world. But the Lesson Study implementation in Hungary was a relatively slow process. Gordon Győri in 2007 gave a presentation in the WALS conference on the possible professional difficulties and predicted delay of the Lesson Study implementation in Hungary (Gordon Győri, 2007).   Indeed, only now, almost 10 years later the first Lesson and Learning Study development began in two Hungarian towns: the first Hungarian Lesson Study project in Eger, and the first Hungarian Learning Study project in Miskolc (Czók & Győri, 2015). In Eger teachers, appointed by the principal of the school, chose the topic of ‘Supporting self-study and highlighting the essence of a text in class 4’ and with the help of an expert analyzed an informative text. In Miskolc three volunteer teachers from the English department worked out the exercise plan for a bilingual group in class 9, and based on different Situational Language Teaching they practiced ’Simple Past Tense Questions’ during the research lesson. Both projects are linked with a complex research program, in which we get data by educational anthropological research (participant observation method /e.g. Bernard, 2014), and through the projects we carried out half-structured interviews with the teachers involved in the project. The focuses are directed towards the changes of the participating teachers’ pedagogical views and which elements of the Lesson/Learning Study require modifies into the Hungarian educational environment. In addition, what kind of features/attributes of the education culture in Hungary are the reasons of these modifications.  The novelty of this method seemed to be a ’strain’ with conflicts and logistical hindrances coming from outside (mentioned by Lewis et all, 2011 too). In spite of this, according to the participating primary and secondary school teachers, it turned out at the end that their thoughts on the profession and creativity have renewed. Lesson/Learning Studies strengthen the teachers’ identity and self-reflection (Lo & Marton, 2006), creates stable, bottom-up organized professional community and reshapes the stereotype of teachers as officials engaged in administrative work.

Presentation Code

2Mb Download

Title

Influence of Culture in Adapting Lesson Study: A Philippine Experience

Presenter/s

Ivy Mejia and  Eligio Obille, Jr

Affiliations

 

 University of the Philippines National Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development(Philippines)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 4: 2.4-2.6)

Abstract

Lesson Study, a professional development model for teachers used widely in Japan, evolved in a culture entirely different from that of Filipino teachers. The process of lesson study—setting up goals, planning a lesson to bring the goals into life, in-depth discussion of the content of a chosen lesson, implementing the lesson while being observed by others, improvement of the lesson through group reflection, and teaching the revised lesson—is not exactly in accord with the typical Filipino style of instructional improvement. In the Philippines, teachers plan lessons on their own and teach them in the comfort of their classrooms without anyone observing them. More often than not, short episodes of reflection on the lesson happen randomly during the teaching session. Fairly recently, Lesson Study has started to make its way into Philippine schools. While evidence on the improvement of teaching and students’ learning through Lesson Study are ubiquitous, implementation is a challenge as its characteristics do not fit well within the educational setting in the Philippines. In this paper, we describe the four-year journey (2012-2015) of a lesson study team composed of two researchers that served as knowledgeable others and five high school science teachers. The mismatch in the nature of Lesson Study and Philippine teaching created issues and problems in the process of adapting this type of professional development approach. However, toward the latter part of the four-year collaboration, the teachers eventually embraced Lesson Study as a school-based strategy in improving their instruction. We intend to explain how we reached this stage by using Sikolohiyang Pilipino (SP) or Filipino Psychology, a framework whose main focus is on Filipino culture. We describe how an awareness of SP may contribute to the attainment of desirable changes in teacher-participants in the course of their involvement in Lesson Study.

Presentation Code

2Mc Download

Title

Lesson Study, Lost in Translation?

Presenter/s

Paul Smalley, David Allan, David Boorman and  Ella O'Doherty

Affiliations

 

Edge Hill University (United Kingdom)

Faculty of Education

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 4: 2.4-2.6)

Abstract

This paper compares the version of Lesson Study used in an EEF funded pilot project which ran from 2013-2016 in three regions of England with the theoretical Japanese and American Lesson Study model found in the literature.  The paper will firstly describe the common features of International Lesson Study found in the literature, before looking at the way it has been introduced into England by Dudley (2005, 2011a, 2011b, 2013) and others including the EEF pilot project.  It will then consider how this has been translated into practice by analyzing qualitative data which has been gathered from semi-structured interviews with 30 teachers in 18 primary schools in England which have been involved in the English pilot.  By focusing on the model of delivery, including planning, observation and dissemination, it will consider the strengths and weaknesses apparent in delivered version of Lesson Study, thereby analyzing methodological and procedural differences.  It will argue that key features of Lesson Study have been ‘lost in translation’ and what has occurred is more a form of collaborative pupil study, due in part to the specific pedagogical aims and social setting which bounds the project in this country.

Presentation Code

2Na

Title

Using 4MAT to Improve Learner Engagement in Science Lessons

Presenter/s

Siak Peng Koh, Qiang Li

Affiliations

 

Clementi Town Secondary School (Singapore)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Collaborative)

Abstract

Teachers in traditional Science classrooms tend to use the lecture format and logical, sequential problem solving as their key instructional methods. These methods often honor only certain learning styles of the learners, while neglecting others. The 4MAT (4 Mode Application Technique), which was developed by Bernice McCarthy in 1987, is an 8-step, sequential instructional model that helps teachers to tap on the unique learning style that each learner brings to the classroom, while helping them to develop in other ways of learning. The 4MAT model is based on Kolb’s Experiential Learning model and the concept of brain hemisphericity.  The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the 4MAT teaching model on learner engagement in the Science classroom. A team of Science teachers utilized the 4MAT framework to design two lesson units (one in Biology and another in Chemistry) that appeal to all four types of learners – innovative learners (Type 1), analytic learners (Type 2), common sense learners (Type 3) and dynamic learners (Type 4). The lessons were presented to the learners using both the right and left mode operating techniques, so that all four types of learners can learn using their individual type of learning style, and yet have the opportunity to also develop other learning styles.   In the research lessons, it was observed that learners were more engaged affectively, behaviorally and cognitively. Results using t-test indicate that students from the project fared better than regular groups in terms of their performance in end-of-unit assessments. Qualitative data collected in the form of written responses from the students in the project validated their positive response to the 4MAT model of teaching. Besides the research findings, the presenters will also be sharing their learning points in the various phases of Lesson Study and the challenges encountered by the research team.

Presentation Code

2Nb Download

Title

Developing and Using Good Teaching Materials for Raising Motivation and Aspiration of Children in National Literature Lesson in Japan

Presenter/s

Fukuyo Tomita, Kemchi Nagareda

Affiliations

 

Osaka Kyoiku University (Japan)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Collaborative)

Abstract

In a lesson planning, a teaching material is one of the key factors for a good lesson.  In the circumstance of which ‘Active Learning’ is a hot concern in the revision of the Japanese Course of Study in these days, good teaching materials are essential for raising motivation and aspiration of children to study.

In the case studies here by a researcher and school teachers, it is exploring what kinds of teaching materials motivate children more active, and developing how to use those good materials to drive children to study.  Especially, the cases are focusing on ‘critical thinking, problem solving and decision making’ which are parts of the factors of the 21st Century Skills, as same as creativity and innovation, communication and ICT literacy.  One case is, for example, National Literature lesson in year 3 in a primary school.  The theme of the lesson is comprehension in comparative reading by using two reading materials with the basic context in common written by the same writer.  Those materials have some differences in expressions and pictures.  The lesson is designed for focusing on reading intentions of the writer, and effects of the differences.  As the conclusion stage of the lesson, children write letters to the writer to ask their questions.  In the process of the lesson, children use ICT tablet for finding information and exchange their ideas with others.  So their ICT literacy is also developed in the lesson.  Their motivation and aspiration of study are enhanced by the well organized and intentioned lesson plan with good teaching materials.

Those materials are separately located in different textbooks.  For finding such materials, teachers gather information concerned, and carefully read those pieces.  Then they make lesson plans by using them.

Inagaki, who being a pioneer of Japanese lesson study, uses the expression of ‘Power of Teaching Material’.  This means that good teaching material has potential power for teaching, and gives teachers some space to develop good lessons.  This presents some cases as power of teaching materials and lesson planning focusing on raising motivation and aspiration of children.

Presentation Code

2Nc

Title

Using Active Learning Strategies with ICT to Better Engage Lower-Achieving English Language Students in Singapore

Presenter/s

Guo Sheng Lee

Affiliations

 

Bartley Secondary School (Singapore)

Type of presentation

Paper

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Collaborative)

Abstract

Bartley Secondary School is a public middle school in Singapore with a demographic made up of students from challenging socio-economic backgrounds. Our Professional Learning Team (PLT) in the English Department has identified the lack of engagement of students as one of the core reasons for their lack of proficiency in the English language. For this study, we will be working with a class of 14 year old Secondary 2 students to study and improve the effectiveness of our lessons.

Research Question: Will Active Learning through ICT lead to higher motivation and better understanding/retention of English Language concepts for lower-achieving students?

Research Methods: A teacher will carry out a planned lesson using Active Learning and ICT. The PLT will sit in the lesson to identify and chart student improvement or regression through the use of a rubric to judge the quality of student responses during the lesson. The engagement of students will also be recorded by various teachers in the class. These observations will take into account student involvement in the activity quantitatively (number of students) and qualitatively (whether the approach leads to greater thought in student responses). In addition, there will be a feedback form for students to fill in to give feedback on whether they found the lesson interesting. The team will discuss the effectiveness of the first lesson and carry out an improved lesson for a similar class and repeat the lesson study cycle. At the end of the two lessons, the team will compare student performance from the different classes by taking note of the quality of answers, using Bloom’s Taxonomy as a guide in assessing assignments.

Theoretical Framework: The study is based on research done by Benware and Deci (1984) on intrinsic motivation theory and active learning to improve the quality of learning. To test the hypothesis, the team has decided to use active learning strategies suggested by Bonwell and Eison (1991) through ICT to create excitement in the classroom. The strategies are also tempered by findings by Prince (2004) on the effectiveness of active learning strategies in achieving better learning. For example, we have chosen to place greater emphasis on student engagement rather than test scores in this study as an overall indicator of success.

Contribution to knowledge: This study aims to leverage on practice-based enquiry by a team of professionals to evaluate the effectiveness of Active Learning strategies in helping lower-achieving students in Singapore. We aim to determine the effectiveness of Active Learning through ICT in language teaching in a Singaporean culture which is obsessed with exams and grades. The study will help us determine if this pedagogical strategy is applicable in our cultural context and whether it should be more actively promoted.

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