WALS Conference 2016 Programme - Paper Presentations 1

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Presentation Code

1A

Title

A future for lesson study: challenges and limitations.

Presenter/s

Derry Richardson (Professional Development Leader at Oxford University Press), Philippa Cordingley ( Chief Executive Centre for the use of Research & Evidence in Education (CUREE)), Gary Jones ( Independent researcher, Consultant and blogger)

Type of presentation

Colloquium

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm (Alumni Auditorium)

Outline

The aim of this colloquium is to examine the practical future of lesson study in the UK as an approach to teacher professional learning and institutional development given the current policy and practice contexts.

These are some of the questions that can be examined in this colloquium:

  • Do the benefits of embedding lesson study in educational practice outweigh its professional and economic costs?
  • What role can Government policy have in promoting lesson study and what risks could be associated with Government adoption?
  • What are the risks of lesson study becoming a fad and being adopted uncritically?
  • If teachers were enabled to use knowledge of ‘what works’ in their teaching, would there be a role for lesson study?
  • How does lesson study relate to other practice based enquiry approaches, some of which might be less complex and costly?
  • What roles are there for universities and other teacher training providers in adopting and using lesson study?
  • What roles are there for professional associations and unions in adopting and using lesson study?


Presentation Code

1Ba

Title

Developing Problem Solving Skills in Mathematics

Presenter/s

Amanda Hazell and Zoe Bradshaw

Affiliations

 

The University of East Anglia (United Kingdom)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Red)

Abstract

Problem solving is a skill in mathematics which although always relevant has heightened priority due to the changes in the new mathematics GCSE (Department for Education, 2013). It has previously been a skill which is deemed underdeveloped within mathematics and therefore is a theme which teachers are seeking to develop in order to align with the new changes. The GCSE is the formal qualifications that students take at the end of KS4 in the United Kingdom. The focus of the enquiry was to explore, using lesson studies, the differences in students’ approaches to problem solving. In doing so, key themes relating to the mediation of gender, ability, and academic motivation surfaced. In exploring these themes, the paper subsequently reflects upon pedagogical practices which might effectively enhance and develop students’ ability to problem solve. The study took part in a mixed gender comprehensive secondary school with students taking part in the observation lesson ranging in age from 11 to 12 years old.  The authors are the teachers who took part in the lesson study. Within the wider framework of a lesson study, the teachers as researchers implemented observation techniques in the form of video and peer observation with the accompanying teacher. In addition to this, students provided feedback on how they approached the problem solving tasks through a form of semi- structured interviews. To prevent potential power bias student interviews were conducted via the use of video diaries where no teachers were present which might have influenced students want to give their opinions. Following this, a thematic analysis of both the observations and student video diaries generated conclusions regarding how gender, ability, and academic motivation shaped the students’ approaches to problem solving.  Students’ frustration and competitive need to find a specific answer inhibited their ability to thoroughly explore the problem posed thus overseeing vital aspects needed to solve the problem set. Many students expressed a passion for problem solving due to its freedom and un-rigid nature, which is something teachers should nurture in students to ignite an interest in problem solving. More often than not, teachers are led by a culture in which attainment is the key. However, an atmosphere should be developed where the answer is not the key and students can explore the vibrant diversity mathematics and problem solving can offer.

 

 

Presentation Code

1Bb

Title

Implementation of Lesson Study in Mathematics in Zambia: A Case Study of Three Schools

Presenter/s

Sibeso Likando

Affiliations

 

Deakin University (Australia)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

 Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Red)

Abstract

Several countries have adapted Japanese Lesson Study to improve the quality of teaching and enhance students’ learning experiences in subjects such as mathematics. However, researchers have recounted instances where adaptations have overlooked some essential features of Lesson Study. Zambia adapted Lesson Study in 2005 with the help of the Japanese International Co-operation Agency. While Lesson Study remains a voluntary activity in many countries, Zambia has a policy that requires every public school to implement Lesson Study in every subject area. This study investigates the implementation of Lesson Study in mathematics in Zambia.  

Research questions/focus of the enquiry: This paper focuses on one part of the study, which examines how Lesson Study is being implemented in mathematics at the secondary school level. Research methods: As part of the study, case studies were carried out in three secondary schools in Zambia. Data were collected over a period of six months. At each school, two Lesson Study cycles were observed and video recorded; interviews were carried out with the principal, the CPD co-ordinator, and the two teachers who taught the research lessons; and relevant documents were collected. Transana and NVivo software have been used to transcribe and code the video and interview data. Analytical and theoretical framework: The study uses an Onion Ring Model (comprising five rings − National policy, school culture, classroom environment, teachers’ personal characteristics, and school level implementation of Lesson Study) to frame our understanding of how Lesson Study implementation is shaped by the nested sub-set relationship of the five rings. This research will contribute to scholarly knowledge by examining the implementation of Lesson Study in mathematics in Zambia. It will also extend the theoretical, methodological, and empirical understanding of Lesson study, and provide a basis for further research.

Presentation Code

1Bc

Title

Bridging the Arithmetic-Algebraic Discrepancies

Presenter/s

Septiani Yugni Maudy

Affiliations

 

Indonesia University of Education (Indonesia)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

 Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Red)

Abstract

Transition from arithmetic to algebraic thinking inevitably leaves cognitive discrepancies for students. In this study, we aim at designing didactical bridge between the notion of variable and linier equation for seven graders from one of junior high schools in Bandung, Indonesia. By drawing on Didactical Design Research stance, we firstly map out the concept of linier equation with one variable by employing the method of repersonalization and recontextualization in order to explore both learning trajectories and obstacles inherent within such a concept. By doing so, didactical design representing contextual problems of linier equation was sequentially developed:

1) Applying Bruner’s idea of modes of representation to manipulate engaging tasks for students to grasp the idea of variable;

2) Exploring predicted students’ responses towards problems presented in the forms of x ± b = c and ax ± b = c; and

3) Harnessing collaborative learning to foster students’ understanding of the relationship between arithmetic and algebraic thinking. Secondly, through analyzing students’ work and vignettes of design implementation, we found that by representing the volumes of solution in the test tube, students intuitively connected the unknown variable by turning iconic drawing (test tubes, boxes, points) into symbolic form (x). Although students were able to expand their arithmetic ideas in dealing with problems related to linier equation, in fact they had difficulties to make sense of algebraic equation. Thus, orchestrating various students responses were helpful for them to translate word problem into algebraic equation. Our experience has shown that it is not necessary for teachers to deliver thoroughly the didactical bridge; it is through collaborative learning that engages students to develop fruitfully their own learning bridge.

Presentation Code

1C

Title

Lesson Studies on Project Based Learning: Documentation and Assessment

Presenter/s

Masatsugu Murase,  Atsushi Sakamoto, Yuu Kimura ,Christine Lee Jumpei Tokito and Shumpei Komura

Affiliations

 

The University of Tokyo (Japan)

Type of presentation

Round-table

Strand

 Innovative uses of lesson study

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm (Room K)

Abstract

It is considered that Project Based Learning is one of the effective learning approaches to develop 21st century skills.  However it is still necessary to study what kind of competency is fostered in PBL.  In our project, Japan Innovative Schools Network, high schools in Japan and overseas countries are collaboratively conducting PBL in various ways.  These groups of high schools are called "clusters".  We will report the cases from clusters in our project to discuss the results and tasks of PBL focusing on documentation and assessment of the learning process.

For “Rebirth” of Tohoku from “Great East Japan Earthquake”, Tohoku cluster (a successor of OECD Tohoku School) has practiced the project-based learning.  The theme is “Think Green”.  Junior and senior high school students have engaged in policy-making which will be presented in the international roundtable in August 2017.  The process of PBL is recorded with video cameras, and the students learning are evaluated by the rubric of KPI.

In Fukui cluster, 3 high schools and 1 junior high school are implementing Project Based Learning and Inquiry Learning of existing subjects within their curriculums.  Based on the project, Japan Innovative Schools Network, our students, teachers and researchers are writing Reflection Report that records their learning, teaching and coordinating processes each other.  We examine how do Project Based Learning cultivate students' key competencies and change teachers' belief and practices, and how do enhance researchers' sense of practice by analyzing and evaluating our Reflection Reports.  Moreover, we are considering and developing one of the good practices of professional development as lesson study inner and outer schools toward future teaching.  We will report these initiatives and challenges.

After the reports from clusters, we will ask discussant to make clear the results and tasks of our practice and will open the discussion to all participants.

Presentation Code

1Da

Title

Lesson Study: Is this an Essential Ingredient for Successful Teacher Subject Specialism Training (TSST)?

Presenter/s

Naomi Sani

Affiliations

 

Plymouth University (United Kingdom)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Creating knowledge in practice; action research and other practice based research approaches

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm (Forum Seminar Room 2)

Abstract

Acknowledging that there are simply too few mathematics teachers, the UK government is investing significantly in Teacher Subject Specialism Training (TSST). This programme ‘re-trains’ teachers, of other subjects and from other phases, to teach secondary mathematics.

Delivering TSST sessions I use constructive alignment to teach in a way that models the interweaving of pedagogy and subject knowledge (Schulman, 1986). Conceptual understanding, active participation and deep thinking underpin the ethos of this TSST. Participants are invited to teach lessons as part of their training and Lesson Study is a major constituent of this course. Using the Japanese Lesson Study model (APEC 2013) - of collaborative planning, reflective feedback and the polishing of the lesson for future use - the ethos of this TSST is positively promoted.

For my PhD research I am conducting a four-year longitudinal study, following seven teachers who have been ‘retrained’ by way of the TSST initiative. I regularly observe lessons and interview these ‘case study’ teachers. Field notes, conversational dialogue and interviews with senior teachers, are also adding to the inquiry.

From an interpretative paradigm perspective, I am attempting to see what is actually happening, as these ‘retrained’ teachers teach mathematics over a period of time. The approach I am using is a blend of general inductive analysis (Thomas, 2003) interwoven with the idea of ‘common interpretive acts’ (Schatzman, 1991) incorporated within the steps described by Creswell (2012): allowing findings to emerge from the data whilst simultaneously being guided by my research objectives; those objectives being to consider the research questions outlined below.

The study asks the following research questions:

1) Can TSST affect change in teachers’ practices?

2) If so, what are the changes, what are the successes and what are the limitations?

3) Does TSST appear to be a viable option in alleviating the crisis surrounding the shortage of mathematics teachers?

This study is ongoing but early themes are beginning to emerge, in particular:

1) the significance of the collaborative planning and Lesson Study aspect of the training

2) the need for ongoing support, coaching and mentoring - post TSST.

Continuing a collaborative approach back at ‘base’ often requires innovative overtures from the teachers and significant support from Senior Management. Within an environment which sustains a collaborative model of professional development, the TSST ethos (of reflective practice and teaching-for-understanding) can become embedded. Without ongoing collaboration and Lesson Study, TSST alone could be having very little impact.                                          

Presentation Code

1Db Download

Title

The Impact of Lesson Study as a Methodology for Improving the Teaching of Mathematical Reasoning in Key Stage 3 Pupils.

Presenter/s

Jennifer Shearman and  Joanna Randhawa

Affiliations

 

Canterbury Christ Church University (United Kingdom)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Creating knowledge in practice; action research and other practice based research approaches

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm ( Forum Seminar Room 2)

Abstract

“Developing Mathematical Reasoning in KS3” is the focus for one of the Workgroups in the Kent and Medway Mathematics hub, which brings together all mathematics education professionals from schools, colleges, universities, CPD providers, maths experts and employers. This is a new way of harnessing all maths teaching expertise within an area, to spread excellent practice even more widely for the benefit of all pupils and students.  The goal of the “Developing Reasoning” project is to improve the teaching of mathematical reasoning in KS3 in and to identify effective approaches to department development and individual professional learning that achieve this.   The template for the activity is a model of linked workshops and gap teaching tasks.

An adaptation of Lesson Study is used as a method trialling and reflecting on the the professional development material, hence it is also the chosen methodology for assessing the impact of the change in teaching on both pupil learning and teacher attitudes.   An earlier, mixed-method, interpretive case study pilot using Lesson Study to develop a specific area of practice (in this case with trainee teachers) indicated that a single iteration of collaborative planning had a measurable impact on pedagogy development and reflective skills (Shearman, 2014).

This paper will present follow-up research to explore the extent to which a Lesson Study  adaptation will develop the teaching of mathematical reasoning within mathematics lessons.  Participants will use a scale of 0-10 to self-assess a lesson plan or teaching activity on at least 3 occasions; after the first draft (created by a single group), after the second draft (following a professional development session which includes a group discussion), and after evaluating the lesson following peer observation and group discussion.  The criteria for self-assessment is an adaptation of the Ofsted criteria for ‘features of good mathematics teaching’ (Ofsted, 2008).

The analysis and discussion considers what ‘point’ in the process it is perceived that practice develops, and to what extent the Lesson Study methodology was responsible for any development in practice.  In addition, the criteria was used to measure the extent to which the lesson was planned to encourage development of mathematical reasoning, perhaps a change in practice from “Teaching as Telling to Teaching as Understanding”.  (Lewis & Tsuchida, 1998, p. 12) The likelihood of further use of Lesson Study as a Professional Development strategy amongst the group is also discussed.


Presentation Code

1Ea Download

Title

Embedding Lesson Study in the School's Ethos

Presenter/s

Margaret Farrell and Carly Wilson

Affiliations

 

Belfield Community School (United Kingdom)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Leadership, management and policy aspects of lesson study

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm (Peter Chalk Rm 2: 1.4-1.6)

Abstract

This presentation explores the journey of a school new to Lesson Study through to this becoming a fundamental part of school ethos and culture and a key driver in improving learning and teaching.

At Belfield Primary School, the opportunities Lesson Study provides in allowing teachers to have time for professional dialogue has been instrumental in improving practice and transforming how we talk about our teaching and learning. It has supported a culture of trust, a drive for improvement and a shared responsibility for outcomes across the whole school.

We will describe our development in terms of managing issues of organisation and devising a sustainable system which has enabled us to implement Lesson Study long term, without losing the integrity of key elements of the approach.

We will consider key school issues such as timetabling, providing release time for teachers and ensuring the project is driven from the top by senior leaders.

We will describe how we moved from implementing three lesson study cycles across the school year and have now developed ‘Lesson Study weeks,’ involving intensive sessions of lesson study, within which staff can plan, hold post lesson discussions and move both their own professional learning and that of the children forward. We will show how, by means of the Lesson Study approach, we have introduced new practices throughout our school and with schools within our local network  including:

•          Work on learning powers

•          Metacognition

•          Discussing learning processes as well as outcomes

•          Exploring effective feedback on learning.

As a result of our work in this area, four members of staff were filmed by Edge Hill University as part of the Every Child Counts Professional Development programme for Lesson Study. We also received recognition by the Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED) in our recent school inspection report:

The sharing of successful practice is at the heart of school improvement. Your teaching staff speak very highly of the positive impact of the ‘lesson study’ approach you have adopted. It is improving their teaching techniques and pupil progress.

(Ofsted Report on Belfield Primary School, 2016).

   

Presentation Code

1Eb

Title

Lesson Study and Teachers’ Knowledge Management: A School Management Perspective

Presenter/s

Tetsuo Kuramoto

Affiliations

 

Aichi University of Education (Japan)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Leadership, management and policy aspects of lesson study

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm ( Peter Chalk Rm 2: 1.4-1.6)

Abstract

A recent trend in Japanese educational culture is that of a growing interest in “Lesson Study” and “Knowledge Management.” Lesson study and knowledge management are fundamental to teachers’ professional communities as they endeavour to improve school systems.

The theory behind knowledge management involves the managing of all school functions by incorporating an individual teacher’s knowledge and morale, by promoting each student’s personal development and academic achievement, and by establishing collaborative relationships with parents and communities.

Firstly, school management, including school educational goals, should be established (Plan). Secondly, it is necessary to establish a strategic and coherent teaching plan and curriculum, in order to implement the curriculum and actual lesson plan (Do), and to evaluate the educational effectiveness (Check). Finally, improved qualitative curriculum developments and teaching strategies should be completed within the school year (Action) (Takano, 1988; Nakatome, 2001; Kuramoto, 2008).

The concept of knowledge management involves promoting all functions of the school organization by not only focusing on an individual teacher's knowledge, but also by emphasizing collaborative teacher-team learning communities within the school organization. The primary goal of lesson study is to effectively improve the overall quality of teaching, through demonstrating and sharing of teaching techniques with other teachers. Working in groups, teachers collaborate with one another, by meeting regularly to discuss learning goals, to plan actual classroom lessons, to observe how lessons work in practice, and then to revise and report on the results so that other teachers can learn something new through their practical research.

Because the Japanese style of lesson study engages teachers’ knowledge management at a school, the concept will also contribute to supporting overall school improvement. Therefore, lesson study is a necessary component of the concept of knowledge management. In other words, the concepts of lesson study and knowledge management lend themselves to the development of more positive school cultures by providing teacher autonomy, by enhancing problem-solving skills for school organizations, and finally, by enhancing accountability in teacher learning communities.

Presentation Code

1Ec Download

Title

The Guideline in Developing the School as a Learning Community

Presenter/s

Pariya Pipitphan

Affiliations

 

Satit Pattana School (Thailand)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Leadership, management and policy aspects of lesson study

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm ( Peter Chalk Rm 2: 1.4-1.6)

Abstract

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Satit Pattana School, the case- study school, is a private school in Thailand with an enrolment of about 1,500 students. Its teaching team comprises   80 novice teachers (with limited teaching experiences) and a number of experienced teachers (with coaching and mentoring responsibility). The high teacher turnover rate forced the school to search for a sound solution, the Lesson Study for Learning Community (LSLC) and Professional Learning Community (PLC) were the school right answer. This formulated the objective of this study.  Both Quantitative and Qualitative methods were used in data analysis. The data collected through unstructured interviews and observations and also those derived from observation reports and questionnaires were analyzed in the process of noticing, collecting, discussing and reflecting. The study involved 53 teachers from 8 different subject groups. The findings were:   1. The guidelines for developing a school as a learning community (SLC) were conducted in two phases which were:

 Phase 1:  The construction of knowledge and understanding embedded with educational value by using 5-step learning process based on constructivism theory which comprised: a) questioning b) searching c) constructing d) communicating, and f) serving. Based on the lesson study (LS) practice, coaching and mentoring approach performed by heads of departments, administrators, and guest advisors, was used to form collaborative activities with the members of PLC to provide teachers of all subject groups at all class levels with opportunities to achieve continuous professional growth.        

Phase 2:  The construction of SLC by using lesson study approach. There was collaboration between school members and those of PLC in designing and planning learning activities with an emphasis on child- centered learning philosophy. Targeted teachers from all subject groups were scheduled 4 times a year to undergo LS 5-step process which were composed of:  

1. Analyze

2.Plan

3. Do and See

4. Reflect and

5. Re-design.  

2.   It took Satit Pattana School a year to reach the findings that could be used as guidelines in employing LSLC.       2.1. The application and adoption of LSLC has affected at least 3 stakeholders which were:

2.1.1. Students- the enhancement of students’ learning achievement witnessed by a high increase of average scores of all subject groups mandated by the national tests. The close relationship among students, teachers, administrators and parents exists.         2.1.2. Teachers were regarded not as teaching professionals but as learning professionals. It maximized the power relations among students, teachers, administrators and parents, and also empowered teachers to continuous improvement in classroom teaching practices.        2.1.3.   Administrators and assigned senior teachers attained higher potential of internal learning supervision, of coaching and mentoring responsibilities, and also of academic administration. In conclusion, the study has shown that the development of a school as a learning community could not be a success without commitment, effort vision of the stakeholders concerned.   


Presentation Code

1Fa

Title

Alternative Training – Excellent Students and Lecturers Both Manage a Dynamic Course in the Development of Thinking.

Presenter/s

Dr. Lina Boulos

Affiliations

 

Sakhnin College for Teacher Education (Israel)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Purple)

Abstract

The research relates to a joint management between excellent students and teachers in the course “Teaching for Thinking” in the "Excellent Students program" at Sakhnin College for Teacher Education. The students were full partners in the course management which included: planning, setting the objectives and schedule, and choosing the teaching and evaluation methods. These components changed from one meeting to another according to the students' way of learning and the reflective discussion which took place at the end of each session. This created a dynamic syllabus. Unlike other courses in the college, where the syllabi are fixed, the syllabus of this course had gone through some changes during the course. The research objective was to check the joint management of students and lecturers in the course which dealt with teaching for thinking and the influence of a process accompanied by reflection on the motivation of the participants and on the students' reflective thinking.

 The research population included two lecturers who deal with the field of thinking and the excellent students in the “Excellent Students program”.

The theoretical basis of the content was based on theories of curriculum, reflection and motivation. Findings from quantitative and qualitative analyses of motivation questionnaires and reflection pages, at the beginning and end of the course, will be presented in the conference.

The findings show a clear increase in the inner motivation of the students at the end of the course in comparison to the beginning. The dynamic nature of the course caused the increase of the students' motivation.

The reflection analysis shows that the motive of the students in the course is their experience in sharing full partnership in determining the course content, teaching methods and assessment methods.

The research suggests adopting a joint management approach as an alternative method in teachers training.

Presentation Code

1Fb Download

Title

Establishing a Mathematical Lesson Study Culture in Danish Teacher Education

Presenter/s

Camilla Hellsten Østergaard,  Charlotte Krog Skott, Kristian Kildemoes Foss and  Kira Nielsen-Elkjær

Affiliations

 

Metropolitan University College (Denmark)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

 Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Purple)

Abstract

 

 

 

Bridging theory and practice is a general challenge in mathematics teacher education. Research shows that Lesson Study (LS) is an effective way for prospective mathematics teachers to build relations between course work and field experiences (Potari, 2011). Many educational programs integrate LS in method courses as a frame for the prospective teachers’ exploration of presented theory in field teaching (Fernandez & Zilliox, 2011). However, the prospective teachers in such LS-approaches often only slightly integrate substantial subject matter in the students’ process-oriented activities (Skott & Østergaard, 2015). To ameliorate this shortcoming, we designed an innovative LS-course, consisting of a mix of lectures and LS’s. The course was initiated by an Open Lesson by a respected Japanese teacher. In the course LS was used in two ways: On the one hand, LS constituted a method for the prospective teachers to explore their field teaching. On the other, the course formed a basis to continuously select the mathematical and pedagogical content, as for instance related mathematical topics, blackboard design and dramatization of joint reflections.

Our aim has been to study how the designed LS-course contributed to the prospective teachers’ professional development.

Data was obtained mainly in the form of video- and audio-recordings of course work and 20 LS cycles. In addition we have analysed written reports prepared by the prospective teachers and conducted selected interviews to triangulate our findings. Data was coded and analysed using a grounded approach (Charmaz, 2014).

In our analysis we draw on social and situated comprehensions of teachers’ learning by using Hodgen’s concept of knowing (2011). Hereby we are able to express the prospective teachers’ development as changes in their participations in different practices in and across the different contexts (i.e. field teaching and course work).

The major finding is that the prospective teachers changed their perception of the important course content: shifting from the LS process as a goal in itself to considering ‘the subject matter in relation to teaching’ as more important. The on-going content selection in the course was found to be the crucial factor for the observed change. The course work allowed the prospective teachers to reflect theoretically on their first-hand teaching experiences and hereby developing knowing. An additional finding is that a new culture among the prospective teachers was established, characterized by an inquiry stance to mathematic teaching. The prospective teachers recognised this new culture as an important factor in becoming a mathematics teacher. 

Presentation Code

1Fc

Title

The Journey from Teaching Assistant to Teacher

Presenter/s

David Thomas

Affiliations

 

Glyndwr University (Wales)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

 Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Purple)

Abstract

The paper will consider a small scale case study of four cohorts of students who have/(are) completing a level 6 Education Studies top-up degree having previously completed a foundation degree related to education.

Alongside their degree studies the students have worked in either a paid or voluntary capacity in a teaching assistant or learning support role and have in many cases applied to study the top-up degree with the aim of completing initial teacher training to teach within the primary education sector. Many of the students have expressed a growing dissatisfaction with their teaching assistant role in that they have been increasingly expected to take on a wider range of responsibilities without an associated increase in status which has in part driven their ambitions of qualifying as a teacher.

The paper will consider the views and experiences of four student cohorts namely:

(A) Those who have completed the degree and their initial teacher training

(B) Those who have completed their degree and are currently engaged in their initial teacher training

(C) Those who are completing their degree and have been accepted for an initial teacher training placement and

(D) Those who have decided not to pursue a career as a teacher.

The aim of the paper is to assess the positives and negatives along the journey from teaching assistant to classroom teacher and as to how the experiences, skills and knowledge acquired as a teaching assistant in addition to theoretical studies within the Education Studies degree have impacted upon their personal journey. It will consider motivation to enter the teaching profession, barriers and enablers encountered and whether this career path should be given greater consideration and emphasis as a route into the teaching profession to engage with an untapped wealth of classroom practitioners who are experienced in particular in working with students with ALN/SEN already within the education workforce.

Presentation Code

1Ga

Title

Our Learning and its Impact Through Lesson Study

Presenter/s

Yais Gumbira Buanawaty

Affiliations

 

GagasCeria Primary School (Indonesia)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

 Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm (Peter Chalk Rm 3: 2.1-2.3)

Abstract

At the beginning of the school year, teacher felt third grade student have difficulties during science lesson. When teacher taught part of plant more specific about roots, students were asked to observe the shape and characteristics of some of the roots of plants. Then they draw the result of the observations on worksheet. The work showed that the children do not show the root image in detail. It was also found most children describe the same form between one root sample and another sample. From these results, teacher make a conclusion that students have difficulty in observation skills.  GagasCeria Primary School has been conducting school-based lesson study since 2009. Once teacher know the problems that occur in the classroom, teacher use lesson study as a tool to solve problems in the classroom. Start with teacher told fellow teachers about the difficulties in the lesson. In every lesson planning session, consciously teacher and colleague teachers who helped plan seeks to create a lesson, which include develop observation skills in student. In addition, teachers are trying to learn more about the science curriculum. At that moment, the teacher felt it turns out that the understanding to the science curriculum has not been good. In the open lesson activities, teacher get a lot of advice from other teacher colleagues both at the planning session and in post lesson discussion session. This activity is carried out consistently for one school year. In addition to opening her own class, the teacher also learn several time from other class. One year later, when the student in the 4th grade, learning about the human skeletal material, teacher do a comparison between worksheet this year, with worksheet 1 year ago. Teachers found a significant difference from the way student draw observation on the worksheet. Students draw image from the observation with more detail. Students can accurately depict the position of the human skeletal, and the characteristics of the bones based on the observation they do.

Presentation Code

1Gb

Title

Using Lesson Study to Maximize the Progress and Attainment of Disadvantaged Pupils

Presenter/s

Debbie Nunn and Ciara Moran

Affiliations

 

Woodfield Primary School (United Kingdom)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm ( Peter Chalk Rm 3: 2.1-2.3)

Abstract

This presentation explores how a small primary school in an area of high social deprivation in Plymouth, used Lesson Study as a means of collaborating on planning, observation, teaching and reflection in order to maximise the progress and attainment of disadvantaged pupils.

As part of a National Education Endowment Foundation funded study, a group of 3 teachers from Woodfield Primary School were involved in the project which took place between September 2014 and July 2016.

The teachers received training from expert facilitators to discuss the issues, unpick the research surrounding Lesson Study and explore strategies for engaging all pupils but particularly disadvantaged pupils, in the learning process.  This training primarily focussed on pupil engagement predominantly within English and Maths; adapting texts and resources to focus on all children and looking at different strategies to build independence.

The Lesson Study process was introduced in individual schools, working in trios with the role of the expert teacher taking the lead to support less experienced practitioners. The cycle followed the traditional model of Lesson Study, which encompassed the pre-lesson discussion, planning, delivery, post lesson discussion and pupil interviews, all of which then fed into the next cycle. Regular training was provided with examples of good practice and case studies presented along the way at regional school cluster events. The outcomes at Woodfield Primary School, during this study, illustrate the effectiveness of the Lesson Study approach on increasing pupils’ progress and enhancing teacher learning, in the context of the Primary School system.

The outcomes, in terms of pupil progress and teacher learning, were positive, with identified pupils making more than expected progress across the period of study and achieving at least age related expectations by the end of KS2. The impact has been driven by the iterative process of reflection and, external observation and feedback. Enhanced by pupil response and ensuring this is built into future planning. Staff have valued the process, with the ability to reflect and adjust their teaching allowing them to build confidence under the expert teacher. This in turn, has led to a whole school commitment to Lesson Study to develop and fine tune teaching therefore improving outcomes for disadvantaged pupils.

Through this presentation we will disseminate the practical application of Lesson Study, focussing on how the school has used the process to secure pupil progress and embed its principles into the School Improvement cycle.

Presentation Code

1Gc Download

Title

English as a Foreign Language Pre-Service Teacher Preparation through Lesson Study: Evaluation of a Pilot Project

Presenter/s

María Laura Angelini,  María Neus Álvarez and  Wasyl Cajkler

Affiliations

 

Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir (Spain)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm ( Peter Chalk Rm 3: 2.1-2.3)

Abstract

This paper presents the perceptions about the impact of lesson study on a group of undergraduate student-teachers from the Catholic University of Valencia San Vicente Mártir (UCV), Spain, on a classroom-based approach to teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) to children in preschool and primary education. A group of experimental student-teachers (N=12) volunteered to implement lesson study in two schools in Valencia. They were in the third year of the teaching degree and had chosen English teaching as their specialization, attending a four-month course called ‘Teaching EFL and Children’s literature’ during 2015-2016. This study was innovative in that students, for the first time, worked collaboratively in lesson study during their teaching practice, teaching English to very young learners. Written responses (N=12) to the open-ended question:

What are your perceptions about lesson study?

were gathered from the   students’ written reports submitted after the pilot experience allowed examination of the potential of lesson study in initial teacher training. Results reveal that participants could successfully anticipate to possible problems through direct observation two weeks before implementing their first lesson. Participants found a totally new dimension to their teaching practice by reinforcing their skills in classroom management at the time they improved their language abilities. Through the children’s responses to the student-teachers’ questions post-treatment, prospective teachers learned that the idea of using games and active techniques in the classroom was widely acclaimed by the children in primary who proved retention of the content taught. Nonetheless, some participants indicated that the interviews to the children in preschool did not yield enough information as the infants were not yet cognitively ready to provide satisfactory verbal answers.



Presentation Code

1H

Title

Integrating Research in Teaching: Experiences from Learning Study

Presenter/s

Ulla Runesson,  John Elliott, Ingrid Carlgren, Anja Thorsten and Malin Tväråna

Affiliations

 

Jönköping University (Sweden)

Type of presentation

Symposium

Strand

Creating knowledge in practice; action research and other practice based research approaches

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Green)

Abstract

Integrating research in teaching: Experiences from Learning study

On the one hand the significance of involving teachers in research, and the idea of ‘teachers as researchers’ have been promoted, on the other the ‘gap’ or great disconnect between practice and theory is frequently discussed. This symposium is based on the idea that research must be integrated in teaching in order to be relevant for practice. What challenges and benefits this can bring are presented and discussed in this symposium. Examples from a theory informed version of lesson study —Learning study — with the focus on the object of learning, will be presented.

 

Learning Study as Research on (the Meanings of) Knowings

(Ingrid Carlgren, Stockholm University, Sweden)

 

The purpose with my paper is to describe and discuss how Learning studies can be used to generate knowledge about knowings which is of great importance in teachers’ work. The object of teaching is the development of student knowing, and teaching practices are organized to produce knowings of specific knowns. (Carlgren, Ahlstrand, Björklund & Nyberg, 2015)

An important aspect of the Learning study is its focus on teaching and learning of a specific object of learning, i.e. some specific knowing. Although some objects of learning are well known and described it is not uncommon that the idea of the learning object is vague and unclear in the beginning and becomes specified during the research cycles. The learning object is a dynamic and unfolding object of knowledge in Learning studies. The process of analyzing and describing different aspects of the learning object – in pre- and post-tests as well as when analyzing the research lessons – results in knowledge about what it means to know what is expected to be known. I will give some examples of how such knowings can be analyzed and described.

Challenges of the Teacher-Researcher in a Learning Study

(Anja Thorsten, Linköping University, Sweden)

 

Patrik Johansson, Globala gymnasiet, Stockholm Sweden

Learning study is an interventionist, iterative and collaborative approach, focusing on the teaching of an object of learning. It has been used for various purposes .One, which is explored in this presentation, has been to generate knowledge about how an object of learning is best taught.

The aim is to discuss the experiences of the teacher who is engaged in doing research with Learning Study as the method. The discussion is based on two studies, one about creative writing in primary school and one about historical primary source analysis in upper secondary school. The possibilities and challenges of the teacher-researcher (who conduct research with fellow teachers) will be examined based on the following themes: a) to create and focus on research questions b) to use and develop theories c) to see the classroom as a source for collecting data d) to use your teaching experience as a resource and e) to create generalizable and transparent results.

The presentation will contribute to insights and knowledge about advantages, as well as hindrances to overcome, for teacher-researchers who use Learning Study as a research method. The content can also be related to performing action research in teachers' classroom practice.

Researching Pedagogical Content Knowledge through Learning Study. Combining Theories of Learning in Analyzing an Object of Learning through Students’ Conceptions and Classroom Practice

(Malin Tväråna, Stockholm University, Sweden)

 

Through the use of explicit theories in the design and analysis of teaching, Learning study can be used to generate theory-based and theory-generating results, which are possible to evaluate in a systematic way. The aim of this presentation is to discuss in what way, and to what purpose, theories of teaching and learning can be used in a Learning study, as well as what the characteristics are of those theories of teaching and learning that can be used for different purposes in Learning study. A study that explores qualitative differences in upper secondary school students’ conceptions of justice, in the subject of civics (Tväråna, 2014), is used to illustrate how a deeper knowledge of students’ conceptions of a specific subject content can be explored using phenomenography (Marton, 2014; Marton & Pong, 2005). The study is based on empirical data from seven interviews and written pre- and post-tests as well as recorded and transcribed material from nine research lessons in three Learning Studies. The study analyses students’ conceptions of justice, as well as students’ experiences of what it means to reason in civics.

Presentation Code

1Ia Download

Title

Lesson Study as a Boundary Object in Initial Teacher Education

Presenter/s

Sui Lin Goei

Affiliations

 

VU University (Amsterdam)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

 Further and Higher Education

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm (Queen’s Lecture Theatre 2)

Abstract

A well-known problem in initial teacher education is the gap between theory and practice. Students find it hard to transfer theory to their internships. Problems regarding to transferring knowledge are: knowledge is possessed by individuals, activities ask for recontextualization in specific situations and transfer is seen as a one-way-road, which contrasts with the vision that learning is a social matter. Therefore, the one-way individual task-based interpretation of transfer is often replaced by boundary crossing (Bakker, Zitter, Beausaert & De Bruyn, 2016).

Boundary crossing implicates a two-way-road which focuses on collective learning processes in activity systems. Borders are social and cultural differences between practices which lead to problems in actions or in interactions with other practices (Akkerman & Bakker, 2011), but can have great learning potential. Crossing boundaries forces participants to reconsider their look at practices and assumptions and can be a source of deep learning. By questioning existing practices, activity systems can be transformed.

A boundary object is a concrete object or activity which has meaning and ownership in both systems and facilitates a meaningful dialogue between stakeholders from both activity systems, which leads to expansive learning within those activity systems (Snoek, Enthoven, Kessels, & Volman, 2015). Our question is: Can Lesson Study function as a boundary object to bring theory and practice closer together?

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven student teachers of the initial teacher education for secondary education who were part of Professional Learning Communities where Lesson Studies were conducted with starting and experienced teachers. The answers of the students were analysed looking at the three characteristics of boundary objects: meaningfulness to the student, ownership and dialogue (Snoek, Bekebrede, Hanna, Creton, Edzes, 2016). Furthermore, the students were asked about the benefits of Lesson Study and whether they recognised the following four: intensive collaboration and practical exchange between team members, new perspective on pupils, investigative approach and deepening of and reflection on pedagogical knowledge.

Preliminary results showed a focus on deepening of and reflection on pedagogical knowledge, a new perspective on pupils and the investigative approach were barely mentioned. However students highly appreciated meaningfulness and ownership of Lesson Study and the dialogue and collaboration with more experienced teachers.

Presentation Code

1Ib Download

Title

A Lesson Study on Process Writing and Peer-assessment in Teacher Education

Presenter/s

Claudia Mewald,  Elisabeth Weitz-Polydoros and Sabine Wallner

Affiliations

 

University College of Teacher Education (Austria)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

 Further and Higher Education

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd Sept. 13:00-14:30pm ( Queen’s Lecture Theatre 2)

Abstract

This presentation discusses the implementation of process-writing and peer-assessment in the context of three courses in teacher education: young adult literature, methodology and language skills. The primary aim of the study was to learn about the effects of the approach on language and content learning, as well as the trainees’ gains in their assessment literacy.  The course tutors will discuss how a process of Lesson Study was employed to study three cohorts in three rounds between 2013 and 2016.  For the LS the course tutors developed a process-writing framework. This included face-to-face meetings with the complete study group, on-line collaboration in professional learning communities consisting of three trainees and two tutors and an on-line survey. Each cohort went through five cycles of process-writing and peer-evaluation. The tutors and trainees used the same assessment scale and gave verbal comments during the feedback process. Moreover, they created a collaborative process and product evaluation.   The results suggest that trainees produce more accurate and coherent texts and become familiar with the implementation of an assessment scale. However, the LS showed that the trainees did not become sufficiently assessment literate.  They could provide assessment with a criterion-oriented scale but did not manage to provide the kind of verbal feedback the trainees had appreciated receiving from their tutors according to the on-line surveys. Thus, a claim is made for a stronger and more frequent integration of content, language and practical studies in teacher education so that a more solid pedagogical content knowledge on formative assessment for language learning can be established.

Presentation Code

1Ic Download

Title

The Renewal of the Teacher Training Program, and Changes in the Reflections of Student Teachers in the Descriptions Provided in their Journals during Teaching Practice

Presenter/s

Hironori Sasaki

Affiliations

 

Chugokugakuen University (Japan)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

 Further and Higher Education

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd Sept. 13:00-14:30pm ( Queen’s Lecture Theatre 2)

Abstract

The faculty teacher training course, which the author of this article belongs to, was looking for a model of a “teacher as a professional”. After the discussion among faculty staff, a model of a “reflective practitioner” was introduced in 2014. Consequently, the faculty staff developed the faculty teacher training program which consisted of 15 lessons for 3rd grade student teachers. The descriptions from the journals that 28 student teachers wrote during teaching practice in 2014 were analyzed. The descriptions were assumed to indicate the reflective thinking of the student teachers during teaching practice. The descriptions were sorted based on a preliminarily set of three categories. These were time and place, method of reflection, and level of reflection. As a result, it was revealed that there were a lot of abstract and general reflections in the journals and many of the descriptions had not reached the level of "critical reflection". Finally, it was clarified that the teacher training course should be modified to help the student teachers to reflect on their practice more deeply and to explore their own solutions.

In 2015, the faculty staff modified the format of the journal and the program. At first, the headers of the record were changed. For example, from “the record of the lessons, describe what you became aware of , what you were impressed with, and any questions you may have had” to “the record of reflection from the viewpoints of subject teaching, student guidance and management”. Secondly, what made a reflective practitioner was emphasized even more in the lessons. Thirdly, learning how to describe the reflection in the journal was accented. 29 students completed the program and the student teaching for four weeks that year. The descriptions from the journals of 29 student teachers were sorted based on three categories that were also used in 2014. The numbers of each classification were compared. As a result, the numbers of abstract and general reflections in the journals were fewer. The number of the descriptions of critical reflection increased, and the amount of technical reflection was less. Therefore it was revealed that student teachers were able to reflect on their practice more deeply. Finally, it was suggested that the renewal program could help the student teachers to reflect more effectively and explore their own solutions.

   

Presentation Code

1J

Title

Developing Professional Learning Communities: Models and Practices: West Lodge Primary School

Presenter/s

Ian Bennett and Jim Dees

Affiliations

 

West Lodge Primary School (United Kingdom)

Type of presentation

Symposium

Strand

 Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Blue)

Abstract

‘The professional learning community model flows from the assumption that the core mission of formal education is not simply to ensure that students are taught but to ensure that they learn. This simple shift—from a focus on teaching to a focus on learning—has profound implications for schools.’

 Paper 1: The Beginning of the Journey (Jim Dees)

We began lesson study in 2013 as part of a formative assessment action research project. Our journey began with support from an external consultant who, over the academic year, guided us through all aspects of formative assessment. We used Shirley Clarke’s book – Active Learning through Formative Assessment as our core text. Teachers began to gain an understanding of how to carry out action research and the impact this could have on the development of their own practice. As part of this project we introduced the concept of Lesson Study and subsequently carried out sixteen lesson studies during the academic year. Each lesson study involved two teachers from different year groups who together, planned lessons based around a formative assessment strategy. Focus pupils were identified in each class and observed during each lesson. Detailed notes were taken on each pupil and findings were presented after each lesson. The focus pupils were interviewed immediately after each lesson. The teachers involved found the process rewarding and enjoyed the dialogue immediately after the lesson and the shift of focus from watching teaching to watching learning. It was powerful to watch the interviews of the focus children. This gave teachers an insight in to what children thought about their learning.  This had a significant impact on the school as we began to move towards guiding the children to self-select their own learning with an emphasis on each child gaining a better insight into choosing a challenge appropriate to them, and to enjoy the feeling of being challenged. This all linked to extensive work that we have done on embedding a growth mind-set. The findings from lesson study then fed into our teaching for learning policy. The project ended with each year group presenting their findings over the year. 

Paper 2:  Embedding the Learning Culture (Ian Bennett) 

In 2014/15, we moved to a whole school lesson study approach where all staff took part in at least one lesson study. In this academic year, lesson study was planned within year group teams and focused on areas of formative assessment that were relevant for that year. Each year group came up with a research question which was explored throughout the lesson study and used to form questions asked to the pupils.   Teachers enjoyed this opportunity to observe and were able to see the many different ways of approaching the same lesson. It also gave teachers within the year group a better understanding of the varying learning needs of each class, this made planning sharper and more effective. Towards the end of the year we came together as a staff to review our findings. Each year group discussed the impact of their study and how this had moved their children’s learning forward.  Many teachers commented on not only the children’s learning, but of their own learning journey and how working more closely with their year group had made them stronger teachers. In 2015/16, we wanted to develop an approach where lesson study was built around weekly findings of a chosen research area. A CPD session outlined the different areas of study based around Hattie’s Visible Learning. The approach to lesson study was refined and opportunities were given to year group leaders to facilitate a session, as well as teach another, giving them more ownership of the process. One Year Group Leader explained:   ‘It is an opportunity to gain an insight into the learning behaviours of other classes. It has been insightful being able to observe each class and recognise the common traits shared by groups of children. ​In my role as YGL, I have been able to connect with more pupils and find out their learning styles. This has impacted on the planning by making it more rigorous, meeting the needs of more pupils.’ Throughout the year, CPD sessions were provided so that year groups could share their current findings and outline the impact of their chosen area of research. This helped deepen the learning culture as teachers shared ideas on how to further each year group’s research topic. Whole school issues became apparent: e.g. improving the quality of pupil talk.

Paper 3: Wider Impact and the Future (Jim Dees and Ian Bennett)

Lesson study is now a well-established part of our academic year and is valued by staff and pupils. As we have progressed over the last three years we have slowly got closer to developing a workable professional learning community. A major impact has been to really enhance and develop a positive learning culture amongst the staff community.  Staff are more prepared to take risks as they explore the nuances of learning; there is an excited buzz of talk in the staff meetings and PPA sessions linked to teaching and learning. This has helped ensure that there is a high level of consistency in approach across the school. This culture of learning has spread beyond staff to parents and governors. Understanding the shift of focus towards children having more autonomy over their learning has been difficult for some parents to grasp. However, they have been on the journey with us and through continued communication of how we have developed this process they have also gained a deeper insight into this learning culture. As we move into the future we see parents and governors becoming an integral cog of a developing professional learning community. We would like to move forward by sharing our approach with other schools and to explore other ways of organising lesson study. One initiative for next year is to develop Lesson Study with support staff and a focus on intervention groups. Also, we hope to work with our local cluster of schools and develop an approach that works across schools. We aim to expand the influence of Lesson Study so that it links more tightly with our appraisal and performance development cycles, putting a greater emphasis on coaching, learning and development.

Presentation Code

1Ka

Title

Differentiation and Flipping – A Harmonious Match in Mathematics

Presenter/s

Radha Devi Oonnithan

Affiliations

 

Hai Sing Catholic School (Singapore)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm (Forum Seminar Room 1)

Abstract

Some students learn at a slower pace than their peers or they may lack the prior knowledge that they need to understand the concepts presented in class. After the lesson, teachers often assign homework, which many students perform with frustration and confusion. Teachers in turn spend class time going through homework questions and explaining concepts that they think their students may not have understood. Students become passive learners and teachers become the sage on the stage. On the other hand, for the better students the information may come too slowly or cover what they already know. For these students who have diligently done their homework, it is a waste of their time too. They have to listen to content that they have already understood and mastered. To handle this problem, Bergmann and Sams (2012) proposed to use the Flipped Classroom Model. Creating teaching resources is essential in a Flipped Classroom Model. Hence, a Professional Learning Team (PLT) of teachers teaching the Upper Secondary classes (15 and 16 year olds), had to decide on the content to be used, the level of difficulty and the duration of the videos. They had to ensure that the resources created were sustainable so that other teachers would be able to use / modify them easily in the future. The video lessons were uploaded to YouTube and students were given QR codes to easily access these videos. They watched the videos at home, and came to class prepared with questions that they wanted to discuss with their peers and teachers. This PLT also designed entrance activities to assess their students’ readiness for the lessons. Having a clearer picture on what their students know or do not know enabled the teachers to teach them accordingly. Teachers were able to provide feedback and immediately correct students’ misconceptions in class. Such increased opportunities for feedback have improved students’ learning because feedback has one of the strongest effect sizes of any instructional practice according to two meta-analyses (Beesley & Apthorp, 2010; Hattie, 2008). Based on students’ responses and teachers’ observations, some of the video lessons had to be modified. The choice of questions used during the entrance activities had to be tiered based on students’ capacity and more scaffolding had to be given for selected students.                  

Presentation Code

1Kb Download

Title

Building Meaningful Learning through the Coherence Learning among Mathematics, Language and Science Lessons in the Secondary School

Presenter/s

Anna Permanasari, Bibin Rubini Rusdi, Turmudi Turmudi, Vismaia Vismaia

Affiliations

 

Universitas Pendidikan (Indonesia)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

 Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm ( Forum Seminar Room 1)

Abstract

Building coherence between science and other subjects, such as mathematics and language, leads to the meaningful learning. The study was done to investigate how far learning mathematics and language (Indonesian language) on using science themes gives impact to the science literacy of secondary school students. The study was done using quasi experiment and descriptive methods, under collaboration among maths, science, and language teachers and staff researchers (university). The implementation of learning in all of subjects was done by teachers themselves, and researchers enrolled as observers. Learning mathematics and language were held before science. The result shows that learning mathematics and language on using science themes that close to their daily life made learning more meaningful. This is indicated by the increasing of math and language literacy, better than the class without science theme. Moreover, the treatment caused the meaningful learning on science, because they have had the initial understanding about science. This led to the enhancement of science literacy, much better than the control class. The important thing was that teachers felt positive impact of collaboration between teachers such as building togetherness, sharing experience and expertise, and finally giving meaningful learning to student.

Presentation Code

1Kc

Title

The Object of Learning as an Analytic Tool for the Didactics of Mathematics

Presenter/s

Constanta Olteanu

Affiliations

 

Linnaeus University (Sweden)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

 Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm ( Forum Seminar Room 1)

Abstract

This paper deals with one prominent topic in the field of mathematics education: the communication in mathematics. In this article, a framework is proposed for analyzing the effectiveness of communication in mathematics classrooms. The presentation is based on data collected, during a 3-year period, and consists of the students’ tests, the teachers’ lessons plan and reports of the lessons’ instructions. In the analysis, concepts relating to variation theory have been used as analytical tools. The success or failure of communication is a matter of the relation between thought contents of speaker and hearer. The analysis focus on the interaction among the intended, enacted and lived objects of learning. The intended object of learning refers to the part of the content that students should learn and which is supposed to be treated in the classroom. The enacted object of learning is what appears in the classroom and refers to what is possible for students to experience within the learning environment. The students’ initial level of capability to appropriate the object of learning as well as the way in which students understand the object of learning is the lived object of learning. The interaction among the intended, enacted and lived objects of learning is an indication of whether the communication in the classroom is successful or not. The results show that: effective communication occurs in the classroom if it has the real critical aspects in student learning as its starting point; teachers develop new strategies to present the contents by having the focus to open up dimensions of variation.

Presentation Code

1Ma

Title

Improving Continuous Writing in an Upper Primary English Language Classroom :A Case Study in Singapore

Presenter/s

Intan Salwah Badiuzzaman, Yeo Mui Poh,  Lu Mei Lee, Sapiah Bte Samsudin and Nurul Huda Bte Misman

Affiliations

 

Teck Whye Primary School (Singapore)

Ministry of Education

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

 Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm (Peter Chalk Rm 4: 2.4-2.6)

Abstract

Improving Continuous Writing  in an Upper Primary English Language Classroom ~ A case study in Singapore

In 2012, the Ministry of Education announced changes to the English Language (EL) examination format. It led to a revised Primary 4 assessment plan in 2013 and a makeover for the English Language Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) format which took effect in 2015. The changes reflect an increased focus on pupils’ scope for interpretation and personal response in both speaking and writing.

The underlying principle governing the changes rests on the need to prepare our students for life and work in the 21st century. The 2010 EL Syllabus was designed to empower our students in becoming confident and effective communicators who are independent as well as self-directed learners.

The main aim of this study is to investigate the use of a thinking routine "Generate – Sort – Connect – Elaborate" to help students generate ideas which will then be used to write a fully-developed composition based on a theme. The use of ICT via padlets was also introduced. This allowed the students to share their ideas on a common platform, which enabled teachers to monitor their understanding and address any concerns, if any, immediately.  

The investigation is carried out in a primary school involving 38 Primary 5 students and 6 Upper Primary EL teachers. The teachers crafted a professional learning goal and planned a lesson collaboratively, with anticipation of the students' responses to a given stimulus and theme. Thereafter, a research lesson was conducted by one of the teachers. The rest played the role of observers. A post-lesson discussion was conducted to analyse the students' responses and write-up.

The preliminary findings show positive impact as a result of using such a structured approach. The students demonstrated ability to generate ideas based on a given stimulus, bearing in mind the text features of narratives and personal recounts. The students sorted the various ideas into different categories and then connected the ideas (from various categories) to make sentences. They then proceeded to elaborate on one aspect of the story (climax) using Expand-The-Moment (ETM) focusing on Show-NOT-Tell by incorporating thoughts and feelings.

Such findings would be a useful guide for EL teachers who may require a more structured approach to help students improve their writing skills. The presentation will include numerous photographs, samples of students’ work and/or video clips of the research lesson.

Presentation Code

1Mb

Title

TBLA is a Method to Measurement of Students' Participation in lesson: In Case of Mathematics Lessons in Mongolia

Presenter/s

Ganbaatar Tumurbaatar and Dulamjav Norjin

Affiliations

 

Mongolian National University of Education (Mongolia)

School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm ( Peter Chalk Rm 4: 2.4-2.6)

Abstract

Quality of education depends on the quality of the lesson. So questions appear that, how we compare good and not good lessons? Researchers defined many different definitions about lesson quality. Aim of elementary and secondary education is based on concepts for development of every child, in Mongolia. For this concepts, one basic criteria for good lesson is students’ participation in the lesson. So, how we measure students participation in the lesson? Is there a measurement tool for students' participation? This paper presents the results of our research about used Transcript Based Lesson Analysis as a method for students’ participation in case of mathematics lesson.

Lesson analysis is method for analysis and reflection of the lesson based on the transcription (Matoba, 2007), lesson analysis is a way for sharing values of the lesson (Kuno, 2012). That is a reason why we chose TBLA as a method to measurement of students’ participation in lesson.

The Institute of Teacher Professional Development (ITPD) of Mongolia collects best lesson videos form each schools every year. Teachers send the best lessons, shows of their good practices for teaching and learning methodology. And ITPD put some criteria for their lessons and choose which are good practices and lessons. So, we have lot of video lessons for each subject of elementary and secondary schools. We choose some mathematics lessons and transcript them, and used it to collect data of our research.

We used some quantitative and qualitative research methods for this data and it claimed that students’ participation is not to enough level in Mongolian mathematics lessons. Also we can conclude Lesson analysis is not only analyze and reflection of the lesson, but for measuring students’ participation in the lesson. At the same time we did collect some training materials (good lesson videos, transcripts by words and case analysis) for develop teachers skills and to understand how to increase students’ participation in the lesson. That is practical results of our research.

We need to use TBLA as a method for measurement of students’ participation for any other subjects and compare results.

Presentation Code

1Mc

Title

Teacher Distance Learning Programme as a Tool for Embedding LS as a Staff Development Training Model Approach in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Presenter/s

Liliya Zhurba

Affiliations

 

Centre of Excellence (Kazakhstan)

The Department of Methodological Work

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm ( Peter Chalk Rm 4: 2.4-2.6)

Abstract

In Kazakhstani schools Lesson Study has become an effective teacher professional-development practice. The approach was first introduced to Kazakhstani teachers in 2012 within the framework of the in-service teacher- training programme initiated by the Centre of Excellence AEO Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools. However, the position of trainers engaged in the programme is not restricted to introducing teachers to the concept of Lesson Study. The trainers are supposed to provide post-course support as external advisors for those teachers, who initiate Lesson Study in their schools.

This presentation describes a form of post-course support which meets the needs of Kazakhstani teachers. The post-course support is provided via a Teacher Distance- Learning Programme. This is aimed at the practical implementation of the important idea of formative assessment in learning and teaching. The Teacher Distant-Learning Programme has been developed by the teacher-trainers from the Centre of Excellence at Kokshetau.

Lesson Study has been chosen as the main tool by means of which a variety of formative-assessment methods are implemented in school practice. Lesson Study is embedded in the Distance-Learning Programme through the following steps, which are described more fully in the remainder of the presentation:

1.Teacher-Leaders take part in webinars organized by the regional teacher- trainers

2. In the course of each webinar, Teacher-Leaders are given tasks. These are aimed at the effective implementation of  particular aspects of formative assessment in the  teaching practice of colleagues through organizing a Lesson Study process

3. Teacher leaders collect evidence of Lesson Study effectiveness (e.g. observation sheets, video and photo materials) and send them to the teacher –trainers.

4. The teacher-trainers take on the role of external advisers, providing the Teacher-Leaders with constructive feedback on how to improve the effectiveness of Lesson Study.  Their comments are focused on how Formative Assessment should be implemented.

Presentation Code

1Na

Title

Develop An Actionable Tool to Support Improvement of Research Lessons – A Process Analysis Model from Singapore

Presenter/s

Yanping Fang and Xiong Wang

Affiliations

 

Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Collaborative)

Abstract

Improvement (Kaizan) is the heart of lesson study driving continuous improvement of classroom practice through teacher collaboration (Fernandez et al, Lewis, 2006; Sarkar Arani, 2006; Stigler & Hiebert, 1999). Data analysis is at the heart of a professional development experience (NEA, 2003), particularly for lesson study. Improving the research lessons requires teachers to develop an eye on children for evidence of their learning during classroom observation and form professional judgment on what and how to fine tune instructional language and resources (Cohen et al, 2003). Yet teachers often find it difficult to provide solid evidences to inform lesson improvement through data collection and analysis (Perry & Lewis, 2008; Fernandez et al. 2003), particularly when it lacks specific and systematic reference frames to guide the decision making in the improvement process. All too often perceptions alone inform decision making rather than relying on evidence gathered systematically and examined in relation to specific, intended goals of lesson study (Zepeda, 2008).

To address this difficulty, our research aims to develop a process analysis method which is capable of deriving more sophisticated patterns of whether and how the discourse succeeded in developing the students’ understanding by giving meaning to their mathematical experience in an activity (Wells, 1999). Based on two research lessons and their improved lessons on the same topic of equivalent fractions conducted in 2006 and 2007 in a Singapore local primary school, our research aims to understand how the discourse succeeded in developing the students’ understanding by giving meaning to their mathematical experience in an activity. We view discourse patterns and meaning construction in our research lessons from Well’s dual function of classroom language use mentioned to capture both the “acting” and ‘understanding” dimensions of the classroom discourse. On one dimension, we aim to describe the general trend of classroom behavior embodied by teacher and student talk in content representation as the lessons unfolded. More specifically, we looked at the level of teacher questions and teacher explanations and the corresponding level of student talk in relation to lesson objectives to describe how the classroom discourse functioned in moving successfully or unsuccessfully towards instructional objectives.  On the other dimension, we looked into whether there was any construction of meaning going on in each meaningful exchanges when the lesson orchestration  moves deeper as the learning activities advanced. A coding scheme was developed along the move level (the smallest building block of discourse) and sequence level (least meaningful exchanges) to quantify the lesson representation of content and lesson orchestration of the mathematical meaning construction. The coding analysis was also juxtaposed with teacher interview data and observation field notes to substantiate the findings. This analysis model holds potential to provide solid case data to inform teachers what needs to improve, how to improve them, why the improving act is reasonable. It also helps to verify and reflect on how lesson study mechanism improves and change instructional practice. Moreover, with process analysis, we aim to build a reference framework and an investigative tool for teachers to gauge their investigations (Perry et al., 2009). Ultimately this analysis model is hoped to serve as an instrument to evaluate quality of lesson study practice as professional development for teachers.

Presentation Code

1Nb

Title

Lesson Study at the Foreign Language Level: A Cross-Cultural Collaborative E-Learning Project Between Australia and Japan

Presenter/s

Bruce Lander

Affiliations

 

Matsuyama University (Japan)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm ( Newman Collaborative)

Abstract

The attributes that lesson study can provide the educational community are boundless, especially in the modern era of ICT and immersion of technology in education.  Lesson study is gaining huge popularity the world over for being a pedagogical theory that aids professional development and encourages teachers to learn from each other to further develop their teaching techniques.  In the modern era of today, technology provides more opportunities than ever before to work collaboratively, collectively and internationally despite being in completely different geographical locations.

The practice of lesson study has a widespread following at the primary level of education in Japan, where it was first founded (Takahashi, Lewis and Perry, 2013) and now is accepted as an internationally coveted pedagogy.

More recently the theory of LS has seen an increased interest at various levels of education worldwide.  However, there is as yet little research at the tertiary level in Japan and even less in foreign language education. 

This paper presentation will introduce an e-learning collaborative project involving students, teachers and researchers at 5 locations in Australia and Japan.  Students were trained by local instructors to create cultural eBooks that introduce local and domestic culture in a foreign language.  The Japanese based students did this mainly in English, while their Australian counterparts do this mainly in Japanese.

There are several educational circles involved in this study.  Firstly, there is the student group consisting of 200 students ranging in age from 13-16 from 5 schools at 4 locations in Japan and 5 schools from one location in Australia.  This group was subdivided into classes of approximately 20 students each and instructed by one teacher per group.  Secondly, there is a group of 10 teachers, 5 from the Japan side and 5 from the Australian side.  Finally, there are 6 coordinators of this project at the tertiary level who guide and support teachers with the technology.  This project was led by two teacher trainers from the faculty of education at the University of Western Australia.

This presentation will describe the PDCA cycle that was necessary in the construction of this intercultural, collaborative project and indicate issues that arose during the process.  This study should be of interest to educators interested in integrating more technology into their classes and how to make a collaborative project like this one a success. 

Presentation Code

1Nc

Title

Analysis and Interpretation of Lessons with the Collaboration between University and School: Historical Approach to the Lesson Study in Japan and a Case Study for the Integrated Perspectives

Presenter/s

Nariakira Yoshida, Nami Matsuo, Mitsuru Matsuda, Yuchiro Sato

Affiliations

 

Hiroshima University (Japan)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 13:00-14:30pm ( Newman Collaborative)

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to clarify the concept of “Lessons”, which have been developed through post-war movement of Lesson Studies in Japan, focus on the methodologies of analysis and interpretation of the lessons. When we analyze or interpret the lessons, we must select the methods and objects depending on our concept of “lessons”. For instance, if we try to analyze what is learned by children based on what they to learn about the constitution of the subject contents, our methods must be reflected our concept which attaches importance to “study of subject matter". Adversely, if we emphasis the aspect of the “Lessons” as interactive group processes between teacher and children, we must try to see their concrete accumulation of conversationactions and reactions and their relationship in our Lesson Analysis.

The “Joint Research of Lesson studies between five universities and schools” had contributed to develop the concept of “Lessons” in Japan. There were major five universities which had leaded Lesson Studies from 1962 to 1985. And those five universities developed each unique methodology of analysis and interpretation of lessons through the collaborative researches with each partnered schools. Hokkaido University with Toro Elementary School: “jugyou-syo Houshiki” (class report book method), Tokyo University with Shima Elementary School: Lesson Study as science, Nagoya University with Ando Elementary School: “R. R. (Relativistic Relation Research) Method” and “Kodomo no Mitori” (interpreting children’s learning), Kobe University with Sugano Elementary School: “Kaihou Kyouiku”(liberation education) and “Douwa Kyouiku”(social integration education), Hiroshima University with Mori Elementary School and Kamogawa Junior High School: “Group Process” in the Lesson. The researchers of those universities had presented their research results and practical reports, then their actions accelerating the movement of the Lesson Study. Actually those movements gave the impact on the development of the concept of “Lessons” after that.

Research result is to point out that methodologies of analysis and interpretation of lessons by reviewing the characteristics of the “Joint Research of Lesson studies between five universities and schools” present “cognition-process and collective-process”, “combination of science and life”, “relation between the one Child and the classroom as community” in lessons as the concept of “Lessons”. And we suggest a new methodology using a case study of Lesson study which aims at integrating the six perspectives, Lesson Study in Japan. Hiroshima: Keisuisha, p. 256-341), “Teaching Material-Oriented Approach”, “Child-Centered Approach”, “Group Formation based Approach”, “Objective-Based Approach”, “Method-Focused Approach”, “An Approach Based on the Way of Life”, for the lesson planning.

WALS Conference 2016 Programme - Paper Presentations 2

Keynote Speeches | Posters | Paper Presentations 1 | Paper Presentations 2 |  Paper Presentations 3
Paper Presentations 4 | Paper Presentations 5 | Paper Presentations 6 | Paper Presentations 7

Presentation Code

2A

Title

Improving Learning in the New Curriculum Mathematics through Lesson Study: A London-wide Lesson Study Programme.

Presenter/s

Jean Lang,  Pete Dudley, Nigel Bufton, Kathy Bannon and  Gail Carlyle

Affiliations

 

London Borough of Camden

Type of presentation

Symposium

Strand

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Alumni Auditorium)

Abstract

The Camden: Cambridge New Curriculum Mathematics Lesson Study Program (2013 – 15) aimed to develop a cross school, self-sustaining Lesson Study community of mathematics teachers and lead professionals to prepare for and teach the new mathematics curriculum, leading to improved pupil learning in mathematics. Over 300 teachers and senior leaders from 96 schools across London participated in the project, focusing on developing teaching and curriculum through Lesson Study.

Paper 1. Establishing a System-wide Lesson Study process in Camden, to Address Priorities for Achievement in Mathematics, Capable of Rapid Escalation to Scale. (Jean Lang)

The project addressed the Camden wide priorities for school improvement to develop expert teachers of mathematics who have the mathematical subject and pedagogical knowledge to raise standards at the end of primary school and into secondary school and particularly to:

Improve primary teachers’ higher level subject knowledge of mathematics

Improve primary and secondary teachers’ practice knowledge of how to teach the hardest to learn aspects of mathematics

Build a sustainable school to school, peer-led community of expert teachers to share more widely the new practice knowledge created through these lesson studies.

The project aimed to create a transformation in teacher expectations and mathematics practice, strengthen the ways in which people work together and also school leadership roles. It also hoped to transform how schools organize themselves around Lesson Study based professional learning so that it becomes systemically embedded and cost neutral as it is in Japan and other high performing school systems. The intention was that the resulting capacity, architecture and the community of practice would continue to thrive and develop beyond mathematics to other subjects and for long after the end of this project.

Paper 2: Growing a Borough Wide Scheme of Learning through Lesson Study to Sustain Progress in Mathematics from Primary to Secondary School (Nigel Bufton).

The focus was on improving the teaching and learning of mathematics from Year 5 to 8. The project began by placing attention on those areas of mathematics known to be hard to teach and hard to learn. It allowed teachers time to engage in the planning, analysis and review with support from experts in mathematics education and in Lesson Study. Participant teachers had time to develop their understanding of Lesson Study and refine their teaching over three LS cycles each year. A log was kept and video recordings of LS discussions were made to provide evidence of how the pupils’ learning and the teachers’ pedagogy developed iteratively together during the project. 

Teachers’ mathematical development was surveyed prior to and at the end of the program. The areas of mathematics chosen at the start soon highlighted core aspects of teaching mathematics that transcended the particular topics and these became the teachers’ choices as they applied their learning to broader aspects such as problem solving and reasoning. The project revealed that through the Lesson Study there was a positive impact on teachers’ own knowledge of mathematics and the links between pedagogy and subject knowledge became more transparent.

Teachers valued time to plan collaboratively in depth and to analyze pupils’ learning through the eyes of colleagues; and they developed a greater awareness of how to teach mathematics in more practical and personalized ways as a result of pupil agency in the lesson studies.

Paper 3: Developing Rigorous and Sustainable Lesson Study as the Basis for Whole School Professional Learning and Development in Inner London: The Case of Richard Cobden Primary School, Camden (Kathy Bannon and Gail Carlyle).

Developing and improving schools requires precise well informed decision making.  Investment of resources and time in this must be justified by visible impact on achieving outcomes that make a positive difference in our pupils’ learning and lives.  Our most powerful resource in achieving this is the expertise, subject knowledge and practice of our teachers.

We introduced lesson study with the intention of creating sustainable professional development; putting teachers at the heart of using evidence based action research to evaluate the impact of their teaching on their pupils’ learning. 

Lesson Study enabled us to establish a culture of trust and openness where measured risks could be taken to develop pedagogy and practice, and where collective accountability for outcomes resulted in the creation of a dynamic and motivated teaching team with a transformed approach to self-development and school improvement.  It enabled our teachers and leaders to refine and improve the processes through which school improvement priorities and staff development are determined.   Ultimately school-wide Lesson Study has facilitated the creation of a school-wide learning community where performance management and professional development are intrinsically linked to pupil outcomes.  Lesson study has created a culture where pupils and teachers learn about their learning together.      

Presentation Code

2Ba

Title

The Effectiveness of Lesson Study as a Professional Development Approach for Empowering Omani Cycle One Teachers

Presenter/s

Shaikha Al Shabibi and Edward Moran

Affiliations

 

 University of Stirling (United Kingdom)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Red)

Abstract

The literature in the Omani context reveals that the most frequent professional developmental practices of Omani EFL teachers are workshops, preparing materials and observing colleagues.  Therefore, the researcher suggested enhancing more collaborative professional development practice in the future. As professionals, teachers are expected to improve their own teaching strategies through sharing experience with their colleagues through participating in collaborative process such as lesson study. The principal of lesson study and its effectiveness on teachers professional development is advocated by Stigler & Hiebert (1999) who pointed out that lesson study is based on the collaboration of teachers to improve their pedagogical practice by observing other teachers teach and share knowledge. On this basis, lesson study, as stated by (Dudley, 2015), requires teachers to plan, observe and then subsequently meet to reflect strategies for improving future lessons. My particular focus in this study is: “Can any development be observed in teachers’ ability to critically reflect on their teaching performance during post-class conferences over the period of the study?”

The following questions will be explored in the study:

1. What evidence, if any, can be found of development in the ability of teachers to critically reflect on classroom performance?

2. Can development be observed in conference spoken interaction within conferences and/or over time from conference to conference?

3. Can development be observed in teachers’ written reflections within conferences and/or over time from conference to conference?

Three female teachers, who teach grades1-4 in Cycle One Basic Education school, are engaged in the study. Qualitative measures are used to collect data included transcriptions of lesson study discussions, teachers’ interviews and researchers’ field notes. Teachers reflections in post class conference indicate that the collaborative environment throughout the lesson study process empower them to gain insights on how to change teaching strategies in the classroom. Findings will be set beside those from previous studies and recommendations made for future research. Excerpts from teachers’ self-reflection will be shared with the audience. 

Through this study, the researcher hopes to develop an understanding of the importance of lesson study model upon teachers teaching growth. This study, as the first time to be implemented in the Sultanate of Oman, might contribute to the existing body of knowledge on how to improve teachers' professional development through collaborative teaching.



Presentation Code

2Bb Download

Title

Lesson Study as Professional Development Process in Mathematics for Elementary Teachers in Portugal

Presenter/s

Marisa Quaresma and João Pedro da Ponte

Affiliations

 

 University of Lisbon (Portugal)

Institute of Education

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm ( Newman Red )

Abstract

Teachers’ participation in Lesson Studies may yield significant changes in their practice, leading to improvements in mathematics learning. Lesson studies have been adapted worldwide to fit different contexts and aims. Underlying our experiences in Portugal, we follow an exploratory or inquired based perspective for mathematics learning with focus on reasoning. In this approach students work with tasks for which they do not have an immediate solution method (closed or open problems), constructing their own methods using previous knowledge. Focusing on reasoning we pay special attention to the students’ formulation of strategies, generalizations and justifications. Conducting such exploratory mathematics teaching is a serious challenge for teachers, demanding specific knowledge, competency and disposition. In this study we aim to know if a lesson study based on a curriculum exploratory perspective promotes teachers’ professional development, regarding selecting tasks and leading classroom communication aiming to develop students’ mathematics reasoning, and regarding teachers’ professional reflection and collaboration. The methodology is qualitative, using participant observation. The participants are two independent groups of grade 1-4 teachers of a school in Lisbon and another school in a rural area, 60 km away from Lisbon involved in a lesson study. Data collection was made through audio/video recording of the sessions, teachers’ written reflections, individual and group interviews, and a research journal made by a member of the research team. Data analysis began by identifying significant moments in the sessions, interviews and the final collective reflection, looking at the transcripts and, where appropriate, at video recording. Then, we classified and sought to interpret the episodes relating to teachers’ learning about tasks, communication and reasoning that we consider of most interest. As data analysis strategies we used the analytic induction, constant comparison and typology categorization trying in this way to conceptualize from the data. The two experiences that we report have different dynamics but show that this is a teacher education process that involves a strong relation with practice, as teachers solve mathematical tasks, analyze possible students’ difficulties, and observe how they respond in the classroom. This was carried out through collaboration and reflection activities, as a practitioner’s research process. By participating in this lesson study, focusing on mathematical tasks and on students’ reasoning, the teachers had many opportunities to get involved in doing mathematics through exploratory approach. They discussed the features of tasks that make them simple exercises or more engaging problems or explorations as well as features of reasoning processes such as justification and generalization. Anticipating possible difficulties of students and looking at what they actually do in the classroom were key features of lesson study that were effective in leading the teachers to reflect and consider changes in their practice to conduct a more exploratory teaching in their classrooms. This led to significant learning regarding the nature of the tasks, students’ reasoning processes, and classroom communication.




Presentation Code

2Ca Download

Title

A Study of Primary Teachers’ Practices in Mathematics

Presenter/s

Valérie Batteau

Affiliations

 

 Haute Ecole Pédagogique Lausanne (Switzerland)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

 Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Forum Seminar Room 1)

Abstract

Our research intends to study the evolution of primary teachers’ practices through the analysis of the effects of a training and research process in mathematics: lesson study (LS). In this LS, the group consists of eight primary teachers ranging from experienced, voluntary and generalist teachers, and two coaches. The LS process occurs over two years with two collective sessions occurring per month in Lausanne (Switzerland). Teachers are involved in a professional development training in mathematics. How can this process modify teachers’ practices? What is going to change in their practices? What is going to resist in their practices?

We will present the theoretical framework, research questions and methodology in a first part and our analysis of teachers’ practices in a second part.

Teachers’ practices are analyzed using the theoretical framework: the double approach (Robert & Rogalski, 2002, 2005) based on a French didactical approach and an ergonomic approach (Leplat, 1997) based on activity theory. In this framework, teachers’ practices are seen as a complex, coherent and stable system. Regularities are observed in teachers’ practices during three important moments of teacher’s activity (process of devolution, regulation and institutionalization (Brousseau, 1997)) and correspond to teachers’ strategies and choices. In the ergonomic approach, the main goal is to distinguish prescribed work (the prescribed task, or what the teacher must do) and real work (the conducted task, or what the teacher does in reality). To appropriate the prescribed task, the teacher should modify it. We study the teacher’s activity as a process of modifications between tasks (Leplat, 1997; Mangiante, 2007). The prescribed task includes the mathematic task, the mathematical knowledge, the lesson plan and the planning material. The prescribed task is analyzed a priori: we study the mathematic knowledge at play in the task, the possible resolutions and the didactical variables. Then, we analyzed the proceedings of the conducted task.

The first cycle of LS was about numeration, we analyzed Anaïs’ practices. The second cycle of LS was about geometry, we analyzed Oceane’s practices. The third and fourth cycles of LS were about problem solving and we analyzed Valentine’s practices.

Presentation Code

2Cb

Title

Sharing Emotions through Lesson Study: Cultivating Professional Capital and Professional Learning Communities of Teachers

Presenter/s

Yuu Kimura

Affiliations

 

University of Fukui (Japan)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm ( Forum Seminar Room 1)

Abstract

Professional learning communities and professional capital of teachers are key concepts in the educational change and reform. In professional capital, decisional and social capital has strong effects of cultivating human capital (Hargreaves & Fullan, 2012). Especially, establishing professional learning communities in schools comes to cultivating social capital and facilitates professional development of teachers. In this sense, lesson study that teachers socially interact and talk about their practices is one of the key activities, which cultivate professional capital of teachers.

But, in preceding studies, we could not show sufficient evidences that lesson study cultivates professional learning communities in schools. Now is the time for inquiring how do we establish strong professional learning communities in our schools, how do lesson study effects on cultivating strong professional learning communities and professional capital of teachers, and what happened in teachers' professional dialogue in lesson study that cultivate professional learning communities.

This study examined how does sharing emotional practices of teachers through lesson study link to cultivating professional learning communities and professional capital. The reason why this study focused on sharing emotional practice of teachers is that emotions are integral to building strong professional learning communities that are more than just meetings about assigned tasks, but an energizing way for professionals to inquire into practice together (Hargreaves & Kimura, 2015). Japanese teachers have a long history of effective collaboration, as, in its highly regarded procedures of lesson study as sharing their emotions. The data were gathered by combining interviews with 20 teachers, and observations of Lesson Study in 3 schools. The following findings were obtained.

First, the interview data showed that teachers accept their anxiety occurred from uncertainty of the class and enhance motivation toward challenging new teaching or professional development by sharing their emotional practices, such as embarrassed or enjoyed experience of the class by professional dialogue. Second, the lesson study observations showed that teachers reflect students’ learning process concretely and build their trust relationships, shared school vision and multi-membership by sharing their emotions, especially talking about fun and good experiences of the class in lesson study.

These findings showed that sharing emotions and emotional reflections of teachers in lesson study stimulate their professional and organizational learning, and enable them to commit to a big picture of their schools. Therefore, sharing emotions through lesson study may build strong professional learning communities in schools.

Presentation Code

2Cc

Title

Rethinking the Provision of Continuing Professional Development in Saudi Arabia from Training to Learning: Science Teachers’ Perspectives: Science Teachers’ Perspectives

Presenter/s

Nasser Mansour and Fahad Alshaya

Affiliations

 

The University of Exeter

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices

Time/Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm ( Forum Seminar Room 1)

Abstract

The aims of the study were to provide a baseline of teachers’ previous experience of Continuing Professional Development (CPD), and their future expectations. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to investigate science teachers’ perceptions of CPD and to identify the factors that could influence their perceptions. The study also sought to identify whether there were differences between the perceptions of science teachers in primary, intermediate and secondary schools.

We focus on a group of teachers who were part of science professional development programs or workshops and explore the teachers’ conceptions of these programs or workshops, its meaning for them and their work, and its impact on their classroom practices and students over the period of intervention and beyond.

Research questions

What are science teachers' views of CPD provision in Saudi Arabia?

How do teachers share their CPD experiences?

What are teachers’ perspectives of the contextual issues that have an impact on putting the learning emerging from the CPD programs into practice?

Research methods

The study used mixed methods (closed-ended and open-ended questionnaires and interviews) with Saudi Arabian science teachers (primary-intermediate-secondary) framed by a socio-cultural perspective.

Research sample

A total of 304 teachers responded to the opened- questionnaires. There were 93 male teachers and 211 females. They were asked a range of questions about their personal experiences of CPD, and their reflections on CPD within the present education system in Saudi Arabia. Additionally, we carried out nine interviews with science teachers (three females and six males).

Findings and conclusion.

This study argues that science teachers’ voices concerning their professional development needs should be the key guide for their CPD. The findings of the study indicate that CPD for teachers is essential in creating effective schools. Teachers’ voices expressed the importance of shifting from a ‘top-down’ model of policy-making and practices regarding preparing CPD, to one that involves a greater level of participation from the practitioners. This might shed light on why teachers were either able or unable to put the aspects of their CPD training into practice.

The arguments presented emphasized that teachers should voice their perceptions about professional development and practices, and researchers should consider the socio-cultural-political contexts when interpreting or understanding teachers’ voices.

Presentation Code

2Da

Title

The Use of the Malay Language as the Medium of Teaching and the Role of Peers to Understand Mathematical Concept during the Teaching and Learning Process

Presenter/s

Aini Haziah Amirullah and  Zanaton M.Ikhsan

Affiliations

 

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia)

The Faculty of Education

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

 Creating knowledge in practice; action research and other practice based research approaches

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm  (Forum Seminar Room 2)

Abstract

Language is an important element in the process of understanding a concept. However, not all students master the language used as the medium of teaching, during the process of teaching and learning in the classroom. Thus, this study aims to identify the approach used by the students to understand mathematical concepts and strategies used by mathematics teachers who use Malay as the medium of teaching the students who are not fluent in Malay. The case study was conducted in a secondary school in Rantau, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Respondents consisted of 20 students in a class 12 Indian and 8 Chinese. Data was collected through observation during teaching and interviews, to show how Indians and Chinese students in this class were using their peers to understand the concepts being taught by the teacher. Peers who can speak Malay translate directly to the instructions given by the teacher. The strategy used by teachers in this context is 1) used of teaching aids in the form of colorful cards numbers 2) reduction of the use of long sentences so that the concept can be clearly shown 3) introduction of the terms used before the process of teaching and learning. This study implies that teachers who do not master the mother tongue of students, must find suitable strategies for students who do not master the language medium used in the process of teaching and learning. The school is required to carry out various activities to provide opportunities for students to use the Malay language as the language used as a medium for teaching and learning. 

   

Presentation Code

2Db

Title

Utilizing Student Voice in Practice-based Research to Promote Reading and Reading Engagement for Disadvantaged Students

Presenter/s

Clarence Ng

Affiliations

 

Australian Catholic University (Australia)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Creating knowledge in practice; action research and other practice based research approaches

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm  (Forum Seminar Room 2)

Abstract

Students from culturally, linguistically, and economically disadvantaged backgrounds in Australia have persistently performed at relatively low levels in national and international testing on reading literacy. Urgent attention is required to look for new models to promote reading and reading engagement for disadvantaged students.  . The research focus is on utilizing students’ views and perspectives in a practice-based research that aims to develop reformative practices to motivate disadvantaged students to read with interest, confidence and a sense of purpose.    Twelve primary school teachers (Years 5 and 6) and their classes from two disadvantaged schools in Brisbane joined this year-long study.  These teachers worked through an action learning cycle with deepened focus on understanding students’ needs and their classroom experiences. A special feature of this practice-based research is the utilization of student voice to inform professional learning through an action research framework that systematically engages teachers in reflection, planning, experimentation, and evaluation. Learning support was provided to the teachers by the research team. The data set included three rounds of teacher interviews, a series of classroom observations on teachers’ implementation of new practices, meeting records and memos, and interviews with selected students. The analytical process followed a qualitative approach, coding three rounds of teacher interviews (primary data) and grouping codes into analytical themes. The analytical focus was on understanding teachers’ views and experiences in this practice-based research that highlighted the role of student voice. Observation reports and student interviews (secondary data) were used to verify teachers’ reported experiences in using students’ views to guide their reform efforts. This paper describes teachers’ reported experiences in the practice-based reform and how student voices have been used to promote teacher reflection and learning.  In particular, student voices were utilised in three specific ways:  1. challenging teachers’ understanding of issues related to learning and teaching of reading; 2. informing the design of new practices; and 3. reflecting on change and evaluating success. The results will contribute to the development of a collaborative model of professional learning driven by partnership with students and valuing students’ perspectives. Lesson studies and traditional practice-based research often focus exclusively on what teachers can do to improve their teaching without giving due attention to students’ voices in the reform process. The current research addresses this gap and promotes the use of student voice as a tool for steering practice-based research.

Presentation Code

2Dc

Title

Humanities Lesson Study – Flipped Classroom Approach

Presenter/s

Derrick Teo Teo Eng Hwatt Derrick,  Catherine Bok Bok Kexin, Wee Onn Tong Wee Onn

Affiliations

 

 Bukit Batok Secondary (Singapore)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Creating knowledge in practice; action research and other practice based research approaches

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm  (Forum Seminar Room 2)

Abstract

The teaching of Social Studies in Singapore has always faced challenges since its inception as an examinable subject in 2001. (Wong, 2000) The then Prime Minister of Singapore, Mr. Goh Chok Tong, (Goh,1996),  had stressed the importance of teaching National Education to the younger generation as they were lacking in the knowledge and understanding of Singapore’s early years to nationhood. The teaching of Citizenship Education is not unique to Singapore as it already takes place in other education systems all round the world. However, what is challenging in the Singapore context is the students’ misperception that the subject lacks real world application and relevance. This misperception and the consequent attitudes towards the subject make the teaching of Citizenship Education more challenging as the students’ lack of interest causes disengagement with the subject leading to a gap in learning.

A Lesson Study project was initiated to examine the hypothesis that the teaching of Social Studies could be improved if students were engaged with the subject and to make it more relevant to their lives. As part of the engagement process, we adopted a teaching pedagogy which included the Flipped classroom approach as well as the use of open-ended and critical thinking questions.

The establishment of the baseline for the student’s level of engagement with the subject was done via a questionnaire on both local and global current affairs. The target students were from the secondary 3 level (equivalent to year 9 in England/Wales). The questionnaire took into account both their quantitative and qualitative responses.  In addition, a quiz was administered to identify their level of preparedness.  These findings were indicative of their level of interest and engagement with the subject. Research was also conducted on the proper application of the Flipped classroom approach.

Open-ended and thinking questions were used during lessons. To engage students in critical reflection, students were prompted to make value judgements and assessments of different points of view towards case studies or scenarios. This was designed to raise the awareness that the skills acquired during the Social Studies curriculum were transferable for future learning contexts. The Flipped classroom was used to test the assertion that empowering students with the ownership of learning would increase their level of engagement.

After one semester of Lesson Study and modifications to the adopted pedagogy and questioning techniques, we were able to observe a correlation between better lesson engagement and interest levels.

Presentation Code

2E Download

Title

Competence-oriented Foreign Language Education: Making Competence-uptake Visible through Lesson Study

Presenter/s

Claudia Mewald,  John Elliott, Helen Heaney, Karin Rath, Irene Reiter and Sabine Wallner

Affiliations

 

University College of Teacher Education Lower Austria

National and International Cooperations and Research

Type of presentation

Symposium

Strand

Creating knowledge in practice; action research and other practice based research approaches

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Peter Chalk Room 2)

Abstract

This symposium presents a study which aimed at making a competence-oriented approach to teaching and learning English as foreign language visible in practice. Four case studies are used to exemplify a theory that defines and frames competence-oriented teaching and learning and to demonstrate how the learners’ competence development was made tangible within 3-4 Lesson Study cycles.

The study engaged teachers and experts in a collaborative process of planning, implementing and analyzing observed and video-recorded lessons. The analysis and interpretation of data, which captured the communication between the learners and teachers in the classroom and the communication between the experts and the teachers in post-lesson meetings, was guided by a set of criteria derived from a theoretical model of communicative competence and a set of descriptors aiming at competence-oriented learning. Collaborative planning and teaching developed into a process of adaptation and variation. This symposium tries to discuss the process in the light of video sequences.                                                        

The design of the study followed ten steps:

(1) The teachers and experts selected competence descriptors and drew up plans for study lessons to cover the various competence areas.

(2) Experts collected theoretical background information to guide planning and learning. During this process, special attention was paid to intended strategy development and use.

(3) Based on theoretical frameworks, experts and teachers developed initial study lesson plans which were discussed and adapted by the study group.

(4) After the first implementation experts and teachers analyzed the observed learning and agreed on revised plans, which were adapted a third time after the second implementation in smaller teams.

(5) Finally, the plans were discussed and fine-tuned in the large study group and the study lessons were implemented a fourth time and video-recorded.

(6) The video footage was viewed and discussed by experts and teachers. A first selection of sequences was considered to provide good examples for competence development.

(7) All pre-selected sequences were viewed collaboratively and the team agreed on scenes that would make competence-uptake visible.

(8) Lesson transcripts were interpreted collaboratively taking into consideration the underlying competence model to create better understanding of the teaching and learning processes and teacher(s)-learner(s) and learner-learner communication.

(9) The analysis of the transcripts was concluded with an adaptation of the final lesson plans to match the video-clips, which were intended to become prototypical samples of competence-oriented learning.

(10) The theoretical background was revised and questions were written to guide reflection on the video-recorded study lessons.

The four case studies demonstrate how collaborative planning and comparative lesson analysis helped teachers and researchers to understand competence-oriented teaching and learning. The presenters have selected examples that were influenced by different teacher, learner, and relational variables which had an impact on learning.

A meta-analysis of all lessons in the study provides a set of criteria that creates a model of competence-oriented foreign language learning. The presenters believe that this model has potential for intensifying communicative language learning.

Case Study 1:

This case study explores how different reading strategies can be used to understand a short literary text with the help of a task-feedback cycle in combination with visual input (e.g. images and silent viewing of the screen adaptation). By bringing extensive reading into the classroom instead of relegating its status to that of homework, one of the longer-term aims is to encourage pupils to discover the pleasure of reading in a second language.<br />

Case Study 2: This case study describes how lower intermediate learners can improve their fluency and accuracy in text production through process writing. Its focus is on the implementation of lexical notebooks and their use in collaborative writing. Special attention is given to the role of lexical range in language production and how the Lesson Study spurred the development of lexical priming and the learners’ productive potential.

Case Study 3:

This case study investigates the role of formulaic language in speaking activities. The focus is on planning varieties of meaningful real life interactions where the use of chunks is encouraged. The study explores various creative speaking opportunities for practicing the same set phrases and words in order to establish routine and confidence when interacting in the target language. The chunks produced by the learners during their speech acts are analyzed and evaluated.

Case Study 4:

This case study reports on the difficulties that experts face when they try to convince practitioners that “doing listening” should be replaced by a strategic approach. Data from collaborative planning and post-lesson discussions are presented and an analysis of the final study lesson is provided to demonstrate an understanding for teaching listening competence or the lack of such. The interpretation focuses on the need to develop a model of strategy instruction which emphasizes interventions to teach listening strategies.

Presentation Code

2Fa

Title

Learning Economics Through Discussion – What and How Critical Aspects of the Object of Discussion May or May Not Emerge

Presenter/s

Rodziah Abdul Wahab

Affiliations

 

Universiti Brunei Darussalam (Brunei)

Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education (SHBIE)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Learning studies

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Purple)

Abstract

Committed to students’ roundtable discussions (RTs) on economic issues, as a teacher, I am exploring the conditions under which such discussion may lead to learning. There is no guarantee that anyone learns through discussions. Booth & Hultén (2003) suggest that dimensions of variation can be opened in a discussion thus affording learning. Learning occurs when more than one dimension of variation are opened and juxtaposed together simultaneously. Ingerman et al (2009, 2013) look for critical instances of ‘threads of learning’ in analyzing conversations, and have shown students do not necessarily learn in group discussions. I am using phenomenographic approach in seeking to identify threads of discussion, which juxtaposed opened dimensions of variation in relation to critical aspects of the object of the discussion. My research questions are on ‘what and how’ students learns (if at all) through group discussion in an economics classroom. I started off thinking that group discussions would provide good learning experiences for students studying economics. When I looked at it closely, I could see they were not learning or if they were, it was ‘luck’ - where I was acting as a teacher in the RTs, as problematic as the students were, in the sense that I was also taking part in bringing threads in the conversations, which did not go anywhere. In my research, I have conducted a full circle of roundtable discussions (RTs) - from where little or no learning takes place and the teacher adds to the confusion of conversational threads almost in desperation, to no teacher involvement, to attempting to open variation by carefully designing the stimulus material for discussion, and to where I am now exploring. I am looking at what exactly is the role of the teacher in supporting discussion as the communicative carrier of what is before the group; at any time in the discussion and linking that, to what took place earlier in the discussion to help students understanding - through differentiation (the ‘Variation Theory’) along still-opened dimensions. In my findings, the student discussion group members have told me that they do not want a 'traditional' teacher because they control discussions and that the teachers’ views defer to the students thus, closing the discussion in their direction. In this paper I report on a study of pre-university students' discussions on an economic issues - that is on ‘Austerity versus Quantitative Easing’ as macro-economic policies.

Presentation Code

2Fb Download

Title

What Makes Rate of Change a Single Quantity?

Presenter/s

Per Håkansson

Affiliations

 

 Jönköping University (Sweden)

School of Education and Communication

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Learning studies

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Purple )

Abstract

The aim of this presentation is to show tentative results from the first of a series of Learning studies in a research project about rate of change and derivative.

Even young children are able to use rate of change to make predictions, for example about their height in six months’ time. With such a starting point, one might imagine that this initial conception could be easily developed. If a mathematically consistent idea of rate of change is created, this can eventually lead all the way to the concept of derivative. Unfortunately, many students view the latter as nothing more than a set of memorable algebraic rules in order to differentiate. We suspect that by focusing on certain perspectives of rate of change prior to teaching about derivative, such one sided view can be prevented and a deeper conceptual understanding facilitated. The research project’s point of departure is the lack of consistency between students’ conceptions of rate of change and the derivative.

We believe that by focusing on rate of change as a quantity of its own, teachers can facilitate a long-term development towards a conceptual understanding of the derivative. The aim of the first Learning study is therefore to discover what aspects of the rate of change must be discerned by the students in order to express it as a single quantity.

The research group, comprising the researcher and two mathematics teachers, will conduct three learning studies at the secondary school level from spring 2016 to spring 2017. The objects of learning involve the interval, the point specific, and the co-varying perspectives of rate of change by using both linear and non-linear functions.

The framework used for designing the lessons as well as for analyzing students’ conceptions and learning outcome, is variation theory. According to this, learning can take place when certain critical aspects of the object of learning are discerned simultaneously by the learner. By unpacking the object of learning through the iterative design of lesson/learning study, we try to explore these aspects in detail.

This research can contribute important knowledge for teaching rate of change consistent with further conceptual development, and which eventually concerns the derivative. Furthermore, the research can exemplify how the developmental possibilities of a mathematical idea can be maintained throughout different levels of education, by focusing on relationships between concepts.

Presentation Code

2Fc

Title

Pick the Pic - it´s Critical, it´s Science! A Learning Study in Science Concerning the Conservation of Matter

Presenter/s

Helen Karlsson,  Ulrika Gustafsson and  Camilla Weiler

Affiliations

 

Hallsta Skola (Sweden)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Learning studies

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Purple)

Abstract

The aim of our paper presentation is to highlight the role of pictures in students’ textbooks in science. Do the pictures give students possibilities to develop knowledge or not?  

In the Swedish national test in science (chemistry) in year 2014, for students in the sixth grade, one task regarding the conservation of matter. There was a picture of a goblet with ice in it, with a tightly lid. The total weight of the goblet with ice was specified. The task was about the goblet with the ice would change the weight when the ice melted to water. The students were supposed to answer if theweight for the goblet would be: heavier, lighter or equal compared to the initial weight?

We thought this task would be easy for our students, but it wasn’t obvious for the students that the weight would be the same. We wondered why? At this point we found that we have taken something for granted concerning the students’ knowledge respect to conservation of matter.

This was the start for our Learning Study. During the study we learned a lot concerning the students’ conceptions regarding molecules and how matter is structured. However, one importantdiscoveryfor us, is concerning the pictures that is common in many science textbooks. The picture is showing molecules in the three phases (Picture 1).

Picture 1. Phase transitions.

Which perceptions may pictures like this develop for students? In Picture 1 you can clearly see that there are different amount molecules, apparently in the same volume, in the different phases.

Can this develop perceptions that matter actually changes the amount of molecules when it changes phase?

How can teachers relate to this? What is necessary for the students to discern? We talked about the weight, but never about the volume with our students. Maybe we should have used the Variation Theory and the variation pattern different. Maybe we would have talked about volume simultaneous with the weight and amount molecules?

Presentation Code

2Ga Download

Title

Effectiveness of Intensive Study of Teaching/Learning Materials to Enhance Teaching of Science Practicals in Zambian Schools: Case of Kapiri Zone

Presenter/s

Emelia Kunda Kasonde and  George Chileya

Affiliations

 

Kapiri Girls National Technical Secondary School (Zambia)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 3: 2.1-2.3)

Abstract

Practical examinations in science at junior level in Zambian schools were introduced in the revised curriculum of 2013 as a mandatory and examinable component of the subject. Learners who are in grade 9 are expected to write a science practical paper in addition to theory papers. Equally, teachers who handle learners at this level are expected to have knowledge and skills to help learners acquire the practical skills.  However, generally, science practicals have not been a common practice for   learners in most Zambian primary schools and learners, therefore, come with ‘heard’ knowledge without or with very few skills on handling the practicals. Similarly, science teachers at junior secondary have little or no skills to conduct practicals to prepare learners as a requirement in the revised curriculum. In 2015, two science teachers in Zambia lost their lives in a laboratory during preparation of science practicals without following safety measures. To this   effect, a deliberate program was initiated by Teacher Education Department of the Ministry of General Education to orient teachers on science practicals through intensive study of teaching/learning materials using Lesson Study approach.  The   purpose of   the research was to pursue the effectiveness of the learner-centered lesson approach in Science practicals at junior secondary school in fostering learner performance. As a comparative study, 18 teachers of integrated science were observed in Kapiri zone. 9 teachers at school A were exposed to the Lesson Study practice while 9 teachers at school B were not. Additionally, examination results of 866 grade 9 learners who were handled by the two categories of teachers were analysed to assess their performance. Assessment tests, final examination results, lesson observations and questionnaires were used to collect data.  Results from the research show a significant correlation between teacher’s knowledge on practical skills and learner knowledge on handling science practicals. Furthermore, the performance of learners who were handled by teachers exposed to practices of intensive study of teaching/learning contents or materials was higher than that of learners handled by teachers who had not been exposed to this approach. Recommendations are discussed in this paper.

Presentation Code

2Gb

Title

Lesson Study to Improve Processes and Learning Outcomes For Elementary School Teachers in Labschooll State University of Jakarta Indonesia

Presenter/s

Herlina Usman

Affiliations

 

State University of Jakarta (Indonesia)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

 Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm ( Peter Chalk Rm 3: 2.1-2.3)

Abstract

Lesson Study is an approach to improving the quality of learning undertaken by teachers collaboratively with key steps in designing learning to achieve the goal to improve the learning process and results are implemented in a collaborative and sustained by a group of teachers. The main objective of  Lesson Study, (1) gain a better understanding of how students learn and teachers teach; (2) obtain certain results that are beneficial to other teachers in implementing the learning; (3) systematically enhance learning through collaborative inquiry; (4) establish a pedagogical knowledge, where a teacher can gain knowledge from other teachers. Stages in the lesson study process implementation, namely: First, teachers are more open to the outside world, the classroom is not locked to should not accept another teacher to see what teachers do every day working in the learning process is performing. Second,   teachers will learn from each other and work together in improving the quality of the learning process through increased understanding not only of the material but also the methods, media and teaching aids, as well as an assessment technique used in the learning process. Third, with the best practice, teachers will be trained to be able to try to generate new innovations in learning, through suggestions for improvement given by his colleague also through creativity - creativity that later appeared in instructional practices. Fourth, the final results are expected to be acquired through this lesson study is a learning process more effective and efficient, are thus expected to improve student learning outcomes.  Therefore the focus of lesson study is the study of learning in order to find the best practices for improving student learning outcomes based on several stages in the learning process observed performed by teachers in primary schools Labschool Rawamangun, East Jakarta State University of Jakarta.


Presentation Code

2Gc Download

Title

Our Lesson Study Journey: Teaching Primary 5 Low Progress Students “Percentage as Part of a Whole” Using the CPA approach

Presenter/s

Sook Peng Woong and  Zahrah Ali

Affiliations

 

Eunos Primary School (Singapore)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm ( Peter Chalk Rm 3: 2.1-2.3)

Abstract

Bruner’s (1966) enactive-iconic-symbolic conception of representation is at the heart of the Concrete-Pictorial-Abstract (CPA) approach, a key instructional strategy used in Singapore schools since the 1980s. In this study, a team of mathematics teachers from Eunos Primary School used Lesson Study to examine how the CPA approach could be adapted to support low progress Primary Five students in the learning of Percentage as Part of a Whole. The team explored how these learners could best construct their mathematical understanding of the concept through class discussions on real-life applications of percentages and concretized learning experiences using teachers’ designed manipulative. Underlying our approach to teaching percentage is the belief that these learners understand the abstract concept of percentage better when they see the relevance of the topic in their daily lives. In this paper, we will describe our Lesson Study journey, highlighting some of our challenges and our key learning points. In particular, we will share our thinking behind the design of the lesson idea and how we adapt the CPA approach to meet the needs of our students. We will also share some ideas for other professional learning teams to consider when using Lesson Study as part of their professional development.

Presentation Code

2H

Title

Using Thinking Routines to Facilitate Assessment of Students’ Understanding

Presenter/s

Gladys Li Ching, Ong Bee Phaik ,Chee Kamaliah Othman, Firdaus Mohamed ,David Tan

Affiliations

 

 Tanjong Katong Girls' School (Singapore)

Type of presentation

Symposium

Strand

 Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Green)

Abstract

In alignment to Singapore’s focus on ‘Student-Centric, Values Driven Education’ (SVE), the 21CC framework aims to nurture in our students core competencies and skills of Civic Literacy, Global Awareness and Cross-Cultural Skills; Critical and Inventive Thinking; and Information and Communication Skills to thrive in a VUCA (volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous) world. (Heng, 2012)

With the intent to provide quality teaching and learning in every classroom, Tanjong Katong Girls’ School takes reference from the LCAP Model where the learner (L) is at the centre of our curriculum, anchored by content (C), assessment (A) and pedagogy (P). Adopting the Ministry of Education’s Assessment Philosophy, we believe that (1) Assessment is integral to the learning process (2) Assessment begins with clarity of purpose and (3) Assessment should gather information to inform future practices. As such, our school adopts the thinking routines proposed by Ritchhart et al (2011) in assessing these 21CC with the aim of achieving SVE. 

The three presentations under the disciplines of Geography, Aesthetics and English demonstrate how teachers use thinking routines to make explicit their students’ disciplinary thinking to assess their understanding of 21CC.

Using Routines to Guide Students’ Data Analysis, Interpretation and Representation skills in Geography (Kamaliah Othman)

The geographical inquiry approach requires students to demonstrate (1) reasoning skills when interpreting and analyzing data and (2) critical thinking when representing data in appropriate forms (e.g. bar graphs, etc.) with well-constructed justifications.

Our PLT observed that students generally did not select the most appropriate forms to represent the data gathered/given. This affected their effectiveness in forming meaningful explanations and deep analysis. Consequently, they did not perform well in data-driven assessment tasks.

A pre-test was set to validate this area of concern. We identified students’ areas for improvement by studying their responses to similar tasks. We aimed to investigate if providing structures (e.g. checklists and templates) helped scaffold students’ thinking and enhance their skills in data interpretation, analysis and representation.

A further intent was to make students’ thinking visible through routines, for teachers to address misconceptions and support their learning better (Ritchhart et al, 2011). Our lesson incorporated Socratic questioning techniques and collaborative learning strategies to develop self-directed learning and opportunities for co-constructing understanding. Qualitative data collected include observers’ reflection logs, post-lesson discussion notes and conversation records with students.

Developing Inventive and Critical Thinkers in and through the Aesthetics

Our PLT observed that students lacked the skills necessary to develop critical and inventive thinking.  In response, we adopted four out of ten Capacities for Imaginative Learning developed by Lincoln Center Education (LCE), New York, namely Noticing Deeply, Questioning, Making Connections and Creating Meaning, to guide students to notice details more deeply, ask questions that provoke deeper thinking, make connections of new with prior knowledge, and create their own meaning of what they know and experienced. These skills are necessary for the exploration, inquiry and deeper disciplinary understanding of any works in the Arts.

Using Thinking Routines (e.g. Think-See-Wonder), a series of art and music lessons were developed and conducted to facilitate the development of these capacities amongst students. To assess the level of attainment of identified capacities, we adapted the set of rubrics developed by LCE. Students also used the rubrics for self-assessment on their own development.

Results from students’ self-assessment were triangulated with teachers’ assessment through the use of same rubrics and lesson observations to determine the students’ attainment in these capacities.

‘Disorderly thinking produces disorderly writing […]

orderly thinking produces orderly writing’

(Paul, 1990).

Many students struggle to articulate their ideas and present them clearly to the reader in expository writing. Paul and Elder (2006) argued that for students to develop critical thinking skills, they must develop the ‘ability to formulate, analyze, and assess’ (5) elements that make up thinking.

Ritchhart et al (2011) posit that students must engage in critical thinking and metacognition by learning to identify different types of thinking. Paul et al maintain that critical thinking can be improved if thinking is made more visible through the use of routines. Our study examines the impact of thinking routines (e.g. 4C’s and 3-2-1 Bridges) on improving critical thinking in the expository writing of Secondary 3 students. Our critical thinking rubric was developed from the language area of Writing and Representing in the Secondary EL Syllabus (Singapore).

 Classroom observations and analysis of students’ work show promise in developing language learners who are capable of growing into ‘self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective’ (Paul et al, 2006) critical thinkers.

Presentation Code

2Ia

Title

Implementation Of Lesson Study As A Tool For Teachers’ Reflective Practice

Presenter/s

Mohd Hasani Dali

Affiliations

 

University Utara Malaysia

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/Location

Sat. 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Queen’s Lecture Theatre 2)

Abstract

This qualitative study explored the implementation of Lesson Study, a kind of teacher-directed approach of Japanese model of teachers’ reflective practice in the Malaysian education context. Reflective practice is vital and imperative to enhance teachers’ knowledge in the context of teachers’ learning. The enhancement of teachers’ reflective practice would certainly improve their teaching practices in the classroom. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of lesson study on teachers, specifically on the reflective practice of teachers. Of late, lesson study has been credited in research studies to improve and influence teachers’ teaching and for this reason, there is a strong interest to know if such findings and results could replicate in the Malaysian education context. The influence on teachers’ teaching could be gauged in their reflective practice as these have been acknowledged to have direct influence on teachers’ teaching in the literatures. To probe the influence of lesson study, qualitative case study as the design was employed. The research question gauged the extent of influence on teachers’ reflective practice. Multiple data sources were gathered through in-depth interviews, observations, group discussions and reflections as well as participants’ journal writing. Data sources were gathered through in-depth interviews and observation. Analysis of the qualitative data indicated that the lesson study has provided an encouraging opportunity and venue for the respondent to collaborate, discuss and share their teaching experiences in managing their lesson. Data from the study showed that lesson study has influenced on teachers’ reflective practice to some extent. Again, the degree of influence varies across different individual participating teachers. Findings from this study deduced that lesson study would require perseverance, understanding and commitment from both the teachers and school administrators to foster the culture of teacher learning that is gravely lacking in the Malaysian education context.

Presentation Code

2Ib Download

Title

Effects of Using 5 Steps Learning Process Based on Lesson Study Approach Together with Professional Learning Community on Ability in Mathematic Problem Solving of Grade 4 Students of Satitpattana School

Presenter/s

Phatarapol Lapkiartiporn

Affiliations

 

Satit Pattana School (Thailand)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Sat. 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Queen’s Lecture Theatre 2)

Abstract

The purposes of this research were to investigate the problem solving abilities of Grade 4 students after learning by using 5 Steps learning process and learning by activity with lesson study. The research targets were 23 Grade- 4 Students of Satitpattana School. The members of Professional learning community, researcher, teacher's buddy, mentor, were participated in all 4 steps of lesson study, which were (1) subject matter analyzing, (2) learning activity planning, (3) doing and observing, and (4) reflecting and (5) redesigning. The research instruments were mathematic problem solving abilities evaluation form. Collected data were analyzed by using mean of percentage. The research findings can be summarized as follows:

After implementing 5 Steps learning process and learning by activity with lesson study, the mean of percentage score of students’ problem solving ability was 69.75 percent.

Presentation Code

2Ic

Title

Lesson studies: A Continuing Education Module in Natural Sciences for Primary School Teachers in French-Speaking Switzerland

Presenter/s

Dr. Claire Taissonperdicakis and Denis Haan

Affiliations

 

 HEP   Haute Ecole Pédagogique Vaud (Switzerland)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Sat. 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Queen’s Lecture Theatre 2)

Abstract

The aim of this contribution is to present a Lesson Study (LS) led in 2015-2016. This LS focused on the teaching and learning of natural sciences in 3-4 HarmoS (6-7 year-old pupils). The theme of the LS was related to science inquiry. The team was composed of two teacher-researchers of the University of Teacher Education of Lausanne and six teachers. Both teacher-researchers were members of the team and they were not “knowledgeable others” (Takahashi & McDougal, 2016). They are experts in the fields of natural sciences didactics and education respectively but didn’t have any experience in LS. We are these teacher-researchers.

Two research questions were particularly explored. First, how did LS help teachers implement science inquiries? Second, what role did teacher researchers during the LS? It means to highlight both teachers’ professional development and teacher-researchers’ abilities to collaborate and lead LS.

All sessions including kyouzai kenkyuu, lesson plan and the lesson to be taught in class as well as improvement of the said lesson were filmed. Four lessons were in fact taught in class which were followed by post lesson debriefings. A lesson on matter was taught and taught again. A lesson on equilibrium was taught and taught again. The teachers used IPads as tools to observe how pupils learn and interact. They took electronic notes and snapshots of certain moments. During the collaborative sessions and the post lesson debriefings, teacher-researchers guided the participating teachers with their expert knowledge. This longitudinal study used two information sources, the filmed data and the observations on IPads, to locate significant elements related to research questions started above. These significant elements were transcribed and analyzed in order to highlight some potential evolutions.

The theoretical framework bring together researchers of natural sciences didactics (Astolfi, 2005; Marlot & Morge, 2016), of developmental psychology (Vygotsky 1934/1997; Clot, 2011), researchers in Lesson Study (Murata, 2011; Takahashi, 2014; Takahashi & McDougal, 2016) and in professional development (Uwamariya & Mukamurera, 2005; Desgagné et al., 2001).

First, teachers better control the implementation of the science inquiry. So they increased their teaching science skills. Not only did they sharpen their critical thinking but they also honed their teaching skills on the way to their professional development. Second, the teacher-researchers’ common ground along with their differences turned into a strong collaboration which became a tool for teachers’ professional development. So they increased their collaboration abilities and their expertise to lead LS.

Presentation Code

2Ja

Title

Developing Teachers’ Personal Knowledge Management Competencies through Integrating E-learning Activities in Learning Study Course

Presenter/s

Eric C. K. Cheng

Affiliations

 

The Hong Kong Institute of Education

The Department of Curriculum and Instruction

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Blue)

Abstract

The paper explores how Learning Study, a collaborative action research approach, can be integrated with eLearning activities to enhance personal knowledge management (PKM) competencies of pre-service teachers for effective instructional design and assessment for learning. PKM competencies are conceptualized as knowledge retrieving, organizing, analyzing and collaborative skills for effective learning. The study adopts Cheng’s (2011) PKM model to proposal a curriculum for developing teacher’s PKM skills through a teaching development project conducted in The Hong Kong Institute of Education.

A Solomon four group quasi-experimental research design was adopted to collect data from pre and posttest of PKM measurement from the participants of the Learning Study course. All items were measured using a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Another professional study course is set as the control group. Lesson observation and qualitative interviews were conducted to evaluate the development of the pre-service teacher. The effectiveness of the e-learning activities, the use of PKM tools and the collaborative action research approach were evaluated. Results showed that integrating learning activities in the Learning Study course had impacts on the retrieving, organizing, analyzing skills for instructional design and student assessment.

A set of learning activities for planning the PKM curriculum could be articulated from the result of this study. For example, access databases and websites for information retrieval; operate electronic tools for information integration to design lesson plans; use spreadsheet and statistical software for data and information analysis to assess student learning problems; use collaborative PKM tools to support both synchronous and asynchronous communication for the purpose of collective learning; and construct knowledge that is based on an appropriate understanding of the nature of data, sound inference, and an understanding of potentially meaningful relationships within a data set. To support the sustainable development of teachers as professionals in the knowledge society, teacher education institutions should integrate PKM tools, e-learning activities and collaborative action research into the pre-service teacher education curriculum. This could be of significant assistance to pre-service teachers in retrieving, organizing, analyzing and collaborating around information across all disciplines. If teacher education institutions really want to fully engage pre-service teachers with a professional and lifelong learning process, they should develop pre-service teachers’ PKM competency by making PKM tools available.

Presentation Code

2Jb

Title

Application of Lesson Study Approach Together with PLC to Enhance Non B.Ed. Pre-Service Teachers Abilities in Designing and Implementing Constructivist-Based Science Process Skills Lesson Plan

Presenter/s

Parinda Limpanont Promratana and  Pornthep Chantraukrit

Affiliations

 

Chulalongkorn University (Thailand)

Faculty of Education

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Blue)

Abstract

Teachers in Thailand need to have teaching license and mostly their first degree are Bachelor in Education (B.Ed.). However, some non-B.Ed. graduates are interested in being science teachers, while the shortage of knowledgeable science teachers are one of our main problem. Therefore, the Project for the Promotion of Science and Mathematics Talent Teachers (PSMT) has been developed by the National Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (IPST) for recruiting B.S. graduates into science teacher education to increase the numbers of science teachers.

Under this PSMT project, B.S. graduates from all over the country have been selected by IPST to further their study at the Master Level in the field of Science Education. The Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University has been one of the institutes that get involved in this project.  Therefore, to enhance non B.Ed. graduate students in pedagogical knowledge and practices, Lesson Study approach and Professional Learning Community (PLC) have been applied in Science Process Skills Development Course and Development of Inquiry Ability in Science Education Course. Data were collected by means of classroom action research from eight non-B.Ed. pre-service teachers who studied in these two courses.

The objectives of this research were to investigate these pre-service teachers’ abilities in designing Constructivist Based Science Process skills lesson plan and implementing their lesson plans in classroom. Lesson Study approach together with PLC has been applied to promoted their abilities.

The PLCs comprised 3 groups of 3-3-2 Pre-service Teachers. Each group had two instructors and two external experts as their coaches. The process of LS together with PLC consists of five steps; Analyze, Design & Plan, Do & See, Reflect, and Redesign. 

Research instruments, Ability in Designing Lesson plan Evaluation Form and Classroom Observation Form, were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Percentage, mean score and content analysis were used to analyze the collected data.

After four months implementation, the results showed that:

1) Non B.Ed. pre-service teachers’ abilities in designing and writing constructivist based science process skills lesson plan were at good and very good level.

2) Non B.Ed. pre-service teachers’ teaching performances were at good level.

Presentation Code

2Jc

Title

Reflecting Upon New Learning as a Mean to Identify Hidden Misconceptions

Presenter/s

Eliezer Yariv

Affiliations

 

Gordon College of Education (Israel)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Blue)

Abstract

It is relatively easy to measure students' gradual accumulation of a new material within a sequential mode of teaching and learning. It is more difficult to measure personal gains within experiential programs when the students have been already exposed to similar content elsewhere. Lortie (1975) argued that after 12 years of schooling, student teachers enter their pre-service studies with a solid acquaintance with the teaching profession, often accompanied by many misconceptions. The current study examines how prior knowledge and attitudes interfere with their new learning.

During their pedagogical studies at a teachers college, some 650 undergraduate students attended the author's course on classroom management over the last twelve years. Among other skills, they learned and practiced the 'Discipline and Dialogue' technique (Yariv, 1996), a short teacher-student encounter format that aims to discuss and resolve a discipline problem. At the meeting, the teacher first learn the details, then explore the child's motives, and finally forge together with the student a long-term solution to prevent similar cases in the future. After practicing the tool at their professional development schools, the student teachers are asked to provide a report describing the event and discussing their insights about the child, the tool and about themselves as prospective teachers.

Randomly sampling 40 such reports provided the material for a content analysis in which I extracted any sentence that began with the notion "I learned that…” These sentences may reflect what specific lack of knowledge was filled by the new learning and how the relearning process changed earlier misconceptions about teaching. For example, when a student wrote: "I learned that children's behaviors stem from inner motives that cannot be seen from outside" it reveals her prior ignorance and misconceptions about children thoughts and the 'true' reasons for their conduct.

According to the findings, students learned: (1) that children are not necessarily influenced by the same factors, and their motives cannot be inferred directly from their conduct; (2) how teacher's actions influence children's feelings and attitudes; (3) new ways of talking to children; (4) that listening empathetically is more important than controlling the encounter; (5) how to organize and plan thoughts and actions in advance.

The discussion argues that asking student teachers to reflect upon their learning not only provides them with an important meta-cognitive tool, but also uncovers lack of knowledge and misconceptions that could be addressed by their teacher trainers.

Presentation Code

2Ka Download

Title

Beyond Learning Study

Presenter/s

Henrik Hansson and  Maria Bergqvist

Affiliations

 

Jonkoping University (Sweden)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 1: 1.1-1.3)

Abstract

Since 2003 until today many Swedish teachers have participated in Learning studies. Researchers, teachers and school leaders recognize the positive impact this have had on teachers teaching and students learning. In a Learning study though usually a limited object of learning is studied during a whole semester and therefore the process does not follow the participating teachers’ ongoing teaching. It seems like this limitation makes it difficult for teachers to use the Learning study model in their everyday planning, teaching and evaluating teaching.  After teachers participation in Learning studies they and their school leaders commonly asks how to continuously and collaborate plan and evaluate teaching in their everyday teaching. A group from Gothenburg University whom have extensive experience in conducting Learning studies as researchers and tutors, tried to answer this question by formulate another question: How to help teachers to continuously and collaborate plan and evaluate teaching in a Learning/Lesson study manner, in their everyday teaching? Inspired by the organizational features in Chinese Teachers Research Groups on school level and Learning and Lesson study’s way of study teaching related to students learning, the group developed a new model more suitable for teachers collaborate work in their everyday planning, teaching and evaluating teaching. The main features of the model: 1-2 hours per week dedicated for teachers to collaborate focus their teaching development. Teachers grouped to be able to help each other in their ongoing teaching. One teacher in each group leading the discussions. The teacher leader attends a special education to be able to lead the work and discussions in a Learning/Lesson study manner and make conscious use of a learning theory/theories.  The model was tested and further developed in a pilot project including six schools containing 51 teachers and 6 school leaders in 2014/2015. An evaluation of the project was made where the teachers and school leaders were asked questions about their experiences of participating in this kind of work. All of the teachers and school leaders answered the questions individual in writing and sent there answers for the Gothenburg University group to analyze. The results of the analysis showed that 51/51 teachers and 6/6 school leaders wanted to continue to work in this way. Some of the teachers and school leaders’ reasons were their experience of visible effects on students learning and their experience of becoming more professional teachers regarding their teaching increased taking departure in students’ needs for learning. 2015/2016 several more schools and teachers in Sweden started working like this.

Presentation Code

2Kb

Title

Professional Learning Communities ‘An Organizational Approach’

Presenter/s

Louise Misselke

Affiliations

 

Guernsey College Of Further Education

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 1: 1.1-1.3)

Abstract

Picture an education organization whose purpose was to develop skills and enable students to gain vocational qualifications but where teaching and learning was the lowest priority. Instead, the pervading culture was that of performativity, income generation and cost saving.  A bleak picture painted of the case study organization in 2013.This was an organization whose professional lecturers were not developing their practice; not sharing their practice and not supporting each other.  Importantly, this was an organization where outcomes for students were not in line with best practice. The case study paper will highlight the process organization took in the development of vocational pedagogy. In addition, enabled a culture with a focus on developing teaching and learning, supported experimentation and action research. Where practitioners discuss practice openly and feel a sense of pride about their practice. The case study will describe the processes, pitfalls and outcomes of developing a whole organizational approach to developing practice through a professional learning community (PLC) approach.  Methodology.  The aims of this study; 1. Evaluate the impact of professional learning communities on developing a teaching and learning culture, 2. Review the impact of these approaches on learner attainment. The study was situated in a pragmatic framework and utilized a mixed method approach, and employed survey methods to understand the view of practitioners in the value of PLC’s. In addition learner achievement data was used to track learner improvement. Lastly, we adopted qualitative data analysis methods to review our Lesson Observation scheme in order to understand the impact of this organizational approach to improvement teaching and learning.

Context

 Further education in the United Kingdom is often referred to in literature as the ‘Cinderella Service’ (Bathmaker and Avis, 2005; Fisher, 2010; Gleeson, Davies, and Wheeler, 2005; Mather, Worrall, and Seifert, 2009).   Implications here refer to the perceived lack of investment and government attention and the constant state of flux caused by changing whims of political motivation (Nash et al, 2008; Feather, 2013; Gleeson, Davies, and Wheeler, 2005).  The culture which remains in the wider further education sector places a demand on these professionals for demonstrable excellence in terms of outcomes for learners, and importantly from a commercial perspective, the need to attract ‘customers’ by being able to declare excellence in terms of teaching and learning. The process. The journey to developing a professional learning community framework, brand and way of working will be presented.  The utilization of teaching and learning coaches to facilitate these communities, enabling protected time and providing and organizational framework will be shared.

Outcomes

In 2016 we have 8 PLC groups each has 10-12 regular members. These groups to meet 8 times a year – this meeting time is protected and highlighted on the calendar. The PLC agenda is focused on sharing practice, developing supported experiments, peer observation, lesson study and teaching triads. <BR>Our organizational focus is now on the students and as such teaching and learning are the highest priorities. Our lecturers feel a sense of pride and ownership about their PLC and discuss practice openly the good and bad. We have been successful with the implementation of a developmental and ungraded lesson observation scheme. The overall picture for teaching and learning within our organization has been externally validated as good with excellent features. Our student achievement rate has improved year on year. Importantly practitioners feel valued and listened too and are developing their own professional practice.

Presentation Code

2Kc

Title

Different Focus of Collaboration in a Longitudinal Relation and the Effect on the Perceived Utility of an In-School Teacher Training

Presenter/s

Daniela Rzejak

Affiliations

 

University of Kassel (Germany)

Department of Educational Science

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 1: 1.1-1.3)

Abstract

With regard to theories of adult learning it can be assumed that the perception of utility of a teacher training is essential for teacher professional learning. Research indicates that the perceived utility is positively correlated with satisfaction, changes of knowledge and transfer into practice (e. g. Hustler, McNamara, Jarvis, Londra, & Campbell, 2003; Rzejak, Lipowsky, & Künsting, 2013). However, it has been studied insufficiently, what affects the perception of utility. Teacher collaboration is regarded as another important factor for professional development (Postholm & Wæge, 2016; Vangrieken, Dochy, Raes, & Kyndt, 2015). Despite a terminology inconsistence it seems consensus that teacher collaboration is multidimensional and dynamic. However, it lacks of studies that gives an insight into this phenomenon (Vangrieken et al., 2015). Following concepts of situated learning it can be assumed that deep-level collaboration (e. g. observing each other in classroom, critical examination of teaching) affects the perception of utility and about that the learning processes of teachers (Reusser, 2005).

The first aim of this study is to investigate the longitudinal relation of different focus of collaboration (deprivatization of practice including e. g. mutual classroom observation and feedback of colleagues, subject specific collaboration, and shared focus on students learning) in a cross-legged-panel-design. Second, the effect of collaboration – measured at the beginning of an in-school teacher training – on the perceived utility is analyzed.

The sample derives from the project LIQUID that evaluates the effectiveness of a professional development program called “Vielfalt fördern” (engl: “Promoting diversity”) in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). Data of about 411 teachers from 17 secondary schools are available.

First findings indicate that subject specific collaboration and shared focus on students learning predict another focus of collaboration at a later point in time, whereas deprivatization does not. Also the influence on perceived utility differ between the analyzed focus of collaboration. 

Presentation Code

2L

Title

Supporting School Improvement Through Lesson Study

Presenter/s

Diana Hatchett,  Gillian Jordan ,Gilda Possibile, Louise Matthews Linda Lavagna – Slater and Jill Wright

Affiliations

 

Edge Hill University (United Kingdom)

Type of presentation

Symposium

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/ Location

Sat 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Queen’s Lecture Theatre 1)

Abstract

This symposium will discuss the implementation, development of a Continuing Professional Development program for teachers, and initial impact of a two -year research project into the introduction of Lesson Study in 75 primary schools in three regions of England.  The Professional Development program was led by Edge Hill University and both this, and the accompanying independent research element, were funded by the Education Endowment Foundation, which aims to close the attainment gap in schools in England by funding, summarizing and sharing evidence of what works in improving the progress and achievement of pupils from poorer backgrounds.   The independent research consists of two elements. A randomized controlled trial by the London School of Economics involves 75 treatment and 75 control schools and designed to examine the impact of Lesson Study on the attainment of pupils in national tests. A process evaluation by the National Institute of Economic and Social Research in a sample of schools examined the qualitative aspects of implementing Lesson Study. The reports of the research will be published in Spring 2017. In this symposium, we shall focus on the development implementation and impact of the two year, large scale Continuing Professional Development program, which aimed to support 75 schools in implementing and embedding Lesson Study as a key part of their approach to school improvement. Contributors to this symposium will include Expert Advisers to the program, University staff, teacher trainers and senior leaders from a primary school, each of whom will lead discussion from this range of perspectives. Elements examined will include:   1. The international research base informing the development of the approaches to Professional Development for teachers and to securing senior leadership engagement in Lesson Study.   2. The focus on school improvement underpinning the program and strategies used to help secure the sustainability of Lesson Study in schools longer term.   3. The structure and content of the Continuing Professional Development program, which covered both the Lesson Study process and high impact pedagogical approaches (metacognition, self-regulation and feedback on learning)    4. The impact of Lesson Study in an inner city primary school in Liverpool in terms of both pupil and teacher learning.   5. Ongoing developments in Lesson Study at Edge Hill University, including an innovative approach to developing ‘Professional Learning Conversations’ with teachers. 

Chair: Gill Jordan  

Paper 1: Di Hatchett and Gill Jordan (Expert Advisers to Edge Hill University)  

This presentation will describe the overall structure and content of the Professional Development Programme and the approach taken to supporting ongoing and sustainable school improvement through Lesson Study. We will summarize the findings from international research, which informed all aspects of this Lesson Study research program and outline the features and timescale for the accompanying independent evaluation processes.

Paper 2: Jill Wright (Deputy Head Teacher, Whitefield Primary School)and Gilda Possibile (Independent Consultant and trainer for the Lesson Study research program).

This presentation will examine the processes and protocols involved in implementing the Lesson Study research program in an inner city primary school in Liverpool. We will describe the way in which teacher learning developed as a result of participation in the program and the subsequent impact on classroom practice and pupil learning and progress. Finally, we will summarize the way in which Lesson Study has become embedded in the school’s overall approach to School Improvement.   

Paper 3: Louise Matthews and Linda LavagnaSlater (National Advisers, Every Child Counts at Edge Hill University)  

This presentation will describe the work of the Every Child Counts Team at Edge Hill University in further developing the features of this Lesson Study research program.  We will describe the embedding within the program of an innovative approach to teacher learning through supporting the development of structured ‘Professional learning Conversations’. The findings of a subsequent small - scale pilot study carried out in primary schools will be summarized and future plans outlined.

Presentation Code

2Ma Download

Title

An Option of Teacher Professional Community Development in Hungary: Lesson/Learning Study

Presenter/s

János Győri,  Brigitta Czók, Marianna Makkai and  Mária Adorjánné Krakkai

Affiliations

 

Eszterházy Károly University (Hungary)

Faculty of Teacher Education and Knowledge Technology

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 4: 2.4-2.6)

Abstract

One of the most interesting aspects of Lesson Study is that, although it was an applied method in Japan and East Asia for a long time, when it became internationally known, it has unusually quickly spread out the US and dozens of other countries all over the world. But the Lesson Study implementation in Hungary was a relatively slow process. Gordon Győri in 2007 gave a presentation in the WALS conference on the possible professional difficulties and predicted delay of the Lesson Study implementation in Hungary (Gordon Győri, 2007).   Indeed, only now, almost 10 years later the first Lesson and Learning Study development began in two Hungarian towns: the first Hungarian Lesson Study project in Eger, and the first Hungarian Learning Study project in Miskolc (Czók & Győri, 2015). In Eger teachers, appointed by the principal of the school, chose the topic of ‘Supporting self-study and highlighting the essence of a text in class 4’ and with the help of an expert analyzed an informative text. In Miskolc three volunteer teachers from the English department worked out the exercise plan for a bilingual group in class 9, and based on different Situational Language Teaching they practiced ’Simple Past Tense Questions’ during the research lesson. Both projects are linked with a complex research program, in which we get data by educational anthropological research (participant observation method /e.g. Bernard, 2014), and through the projects we carried out half-structured interviews with the teachers involved in the project. The focuses are directed towards the changes of the participating teachers’ pedagogical views and which elements of the Lesson/Learning Study require modifies into the Hungarian educational environment. In addition, what kind of features/attributes of the education culture in Hungary are the reasons of these modifications.  The novelty of this method seemed to be a ’strain’ with conflicts and logistical hindrances coming from outside (mentioned by Lewis et all, 2011 too). In spite of this, according to the participating primary and secondary school teachers, it turned out at the end that their thoughts on the profession and creativity have renewed. Lesson/Learning Studies strengthen the teachers’ identity and self-reflection (Lo & Marton, 2006), creates stable, bottom-up organized professional community and reshapes the stereotype of teachers as officials engaged in administrative work.

Presentation Code

2Mb Download

Title

Influence of Culture in Adapting Lesson Study: A Philippine Experience

Presenter/s

Ivy Mejia and  Eligio Obille, Jr

Affiliations

 

 University of the Philippines National Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development(Philippines)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 4: 2.4-2.6)

Abstract

Lesson Study, a professional development model for teachers used widely in Japan, evolved in a culture entirely different from that of Filipino teachers. The process of lesson study—setting up goals, planning a lesson to bring the goals into life, in-depth discussion of the content of a chosen lesson, implementing the lesson while being observed by others, improvement of the lesson through group reflection, and teaching the revised lesson—is not exactly in accord with the typical Filipino style of instructional improvement. In the Philippines, teachers plan lessons on their own and teach them in the comfort of their classrooms without anyone observing them. More often than not, short episodes of reflection on the lesson happen randomly during the teaching session. Fairly recently, Lesson Study has started to make its way into Philippine schools. While evidence on the improvement of teaching and students’ learning through Lesson Study are ubiquitous, implementation is a challenge as its characteristics do not fit well within the educational setting in the Philippines. In this paper, we describe the four-year journey (2012-2015) of a lesson study team composed of two researchers that served as knowledgeable others and five high school science teachers. The mismatch in the nature of Lesson Study and Philippine teaching created issues and problems in the process of adapting this type of professional development approach. However, toward the latter part of the four-year collaboration, the teachers eventually embraced Lesson Study as a school-based strategy in improving their instruction. We intend to explain how we reached this stage by using Sikolohiyang Pilipino (SP) or Filipino Psychology, a framework whose main focus is on Filipino culture. We describe how an awareness of SP may contribute to the attainment of desirable changes in teacher-participants in the course of their involvement in Lesson Study.

Presentation Code

2Mc Download

Title

Lesson Study, Lost in Translation?

Presenter/s

Paul Smalley, David Allan, David Boorman and  Ella O'Doherty

Affiliations

 

Edge Hill University (United Kingdom)

Faculty of Education

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 4: 2.4-2.6)

Abstract

This paper compares the version of Lesson Study used in an EEF funded pilot project which ran from 2013-2016 in three regions of England with the theoretical Japanese and American Lesson Study model found in the literature.  The paper will firstly describe the common features of International Lesson Study found in the literature, before looking at the way it has been introduced into England by Dudley (2005, 2011a, 2011b, 2013) and others including the EEF pilot project.  It will then consider how this has been translated into practice by analyzing qualitative data which has been gathered from semi-structured interviews with 30 teachers in 18 primary schools in England which have been involved in the English pilot.  By focusing on the model of delivery, including planning, observation and dissemination, it will consider the strengths and weaknesses apparent in delivered version of Lesson Study, thereby analyzing methodological and procedural differences.  It will argue that key features of Lesson Study have been ‘lost in translation’ and what has occurred is more a form of collaborative pupil study, due in part to the specific pedagogical aims and social setting which bounds the project in this country.

Presentation Code

2Na

Title

Using 4MAT to Improve Learner Engagement in Science Lessons

Presenter/s

Siak Peng Koh, Qiang Li

Affiliations

 

Clementi Town Secondary School (Singapore)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Collaborative)

Abstract

Teachers in traditional Science classrooms tend to use the lecture format and logical, sequential problem solving as their key instructional methods. These methods often honor only certain learning styles of the learners, while neglecting others. The 4MAT (4 Mode Application Technique), which was developed by Bernice McCarthy in 1987, is an 8-step, sequential instructional model that helps teachers to tap on the unique learning style that each learner brings to the classroom, while helping them to develop in other ways of learning. The 4MAT model is based on Kolb’s Experiential Learning model and the concept of brain hemisphericity.  The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the 4MAT teaching model on learner engagement in the Science classroom. A team of Science teachers utilized the 4MAT framework to design two lesson units (one in Biology and another in Chemistry) that appeal to all four types of learners – innovative learners (Type 1), analytic learners (Type 2), common sense learners (Type 3) and dynamic learners (Type 4). The lessons were presented to the learners using both the right and left mode operating techniques, so that all four types of learners can learn using their individual type of learning style, and yet have the opportunity to also develop other learning styles.   In the research lessons, it was observed that learners were more engaged affectively, behaviorally and cognitively. Results using t-test indicate that students from the project fared better than regular groups in terms of their performance in end-of-unit assessments. Qualitative data collected in the form of written responses from the students in the project validated their positive response to the 4MAT model of teaching. Besides the research findings, the presenters will also be sharing their learning points in the various phases of Lesson Study and the challenges encountered by the research team.

Presentation Code

2Nb Download

Title

Developing and Using Good Teaching Materials for Raising Motivation and Aspiration of Children in National Literature Lesson in Japan

Presenter/s

Fukuyo Tomita, Kemchi Nagareda

Affiliations

 

Osaka Kyoiku University (Japan)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Collaborative)

Abstract

In a lesson planning, a teaching material is one of the key factors for a good lesson.  In the circumstance of which ‘Active Learning’ is a hot concern in the revision of the Japanese Course of Study in these days, good teaching materials are essential for raising motivation and aspiration of children to study.

In the case studies here by a researcher and school teachers, it is exploring what kinds of teaching materials motivate children more active, and developing how to use those good materials to drive children to study.  Especially, the cases are focusing on ‘critical thinking, problem solving and decision making’ which are parts of the factors of the 21st Century Skills, as same as creativity and innovation, communication and ICT literacy.  One case is, for example, National Literature lesson in year 3 in a primary school.  The theme of the lesson is comprehension in comparative reading by using two reading materials with the basic context in common written by the same writer.  Those materials have some differences in expressions and pictures.  The lesson is designed for focusing on reading intentions of the writer, and effects of the differences.  As the conclusion stage of the lesson, children write letters to the writer to ask their questions.  In the process of the lesson, children use ICT tablet for finding information and exchange their ideas with others.  So their ICT literacy is also developed in the lesson.  Their motivation and aspiration of study are enhanced by the well organized and intentioned lesson plan with good teaching materials.

Those materials are separately located in different textbooks.  For finding such materials, teachers gather information concerned, and carefully read those pieces.  Then they make lesson plans by using them.

Inagaki, who being a pioneer of Japanese lesson study, uses the expression of ‘Power of Teaching Material’.  This means that good teaching material has potential power for teaching, and gives teachers some space to develop good lessons.  This presents some cases as power of teaching materials and lesson planning focusing on raising motivation and aspiration of children.

Presentation Code

2Nc

Title

Using Active Learning Strategies with ICT to Better Engage Lower-Achieving English Language Students in Singapore

Presenter/s

Guo Sheng Lee

Affiliations

 

Bartley Secondary School (Singapore)

Type of presentation

Paper

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Saturday 3rd September 14:30-16:00pm (Newman Collaborative)

Abstract

Bartley Secondary School is a public middle school in Singapore with a demographic made up of students from challenging socio-economic backgrounds. Our Professional Learning Team (PLT) in the English Department has identified the lack of engagement of students as one of the core reasons for their lack of proficiency in the English language. For this study, we will be working with a class of 14 year old Secondary 2 students to study and improve the effectiveness of our lessons.

Research Question: Will Active Learning through ICT lead to higher motivation and better understanding/retention of English Language concepts for lower-achieving students?

Research Methods: A teacher will carry out a planned lesson using Active Learning and ICT. The PLT will sit in the lesson to identify and chart student improvement or regression through the use of a rubric to judge the quality of student responses during the lesson. The engagement of students will also be recorded by various teachers in the class. These observations will take into account student involvement in the activity quantitatively (number of students) and qualitatively (whether the approach leads to greater thought in student responses). In addition, there will be a feedback form for students to fill in to give feedback on whether they found the lesson interesting. The team will discuss the effectiveness of the first lesson and carry out an improved lesson for a similar class and repeat the lesson study cycle. At the end of the two lessons, the team will compare student performance from the different classes by taking note of the quality of answers, using Bloom’s Taxonomy as a guide in assessing assignments.

Theoretical Framework: The study is based on research done by Benware and Deci (1984) on intrinsic motivation theory and active learning to improve the quality of learning. To test the hypothesis, the team has decided to use active learning strategies suggested by Bonwell and Eison (1991) through ICT to create excitement in the classroom. The strategies are also tempered by findings by Prince (2004) on the effectiveness of active learning strategies in achieving better learning. For example, we have chosen to place greater emphasis on student engagement rather than test scores in this study as an overall indicator of success.

Contribution to knowledge: This study aims to leverage on practice-based enquiry by a team of professionals to evaluate the effectiveness of Active Learning strategies in helping lower-achieving students in Singapore. We aim to determine the effectiveness of Active Learning through ICT in language teaching in a Singaporean culture which is obsessed with exams and grades. The study will help us determine if this pedagogical strategy is applicable in our cultural context and whether it should be more actively promoted.

WALS Conference 2016 Programme - Paper Presentations 4

Keynote Speeches | Posters | Paper Presentations 1 | Paper Presentations 2 |  Paper Presentations 3
Paper Presentations 4 | Paper Presentations 5 | Paper Presentations 6 | Paper Presentations 7

Presentation Code

4A

Title

Plenary on Deepening Critical Reflections in Lesson Study

Presenter/s

Christine Kim-Eng Lee, Manubo Sato, Lynn Paine, Elaine Munthe

Type of presentation

Plenary Symposium

Strand

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Alumni Auditorium)

Abstract

Chairperson:  Christine Lee

National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University

This plenary seeks to examine what it means to promote deeper and critical reflections among teachers engaged in lesson study.  Plenary speakers Lynn Paine from the United States and Manabu Sato from Japan have extensive experience working with schools and teachers not just in their respective countries but also in China and elsewhere. They will explore ways of “creating authentic reflections” among teachers and overcoming “contrived collegiality” and transforming “invisible practice” to “visible practice”.

Discussant:  Elaine Munthe, University of Stavanger, Norway

Paper 1:          Reflecting on teacher learning through teachers collaborative learning opportunities:  Taking context into account

Speaker:         Lynn Paine, Michigan State University, USA

Abstract:

Lesson study and other forms of related teacher learning activities depend on many things, collaboration and reflection being two key dimensions.  This presentation draws on research in China and the US to explore the ways in which context affects forms of collaboration and the kinds of reflection that supports teacher development. Chinese schools and districts have long endorsed group activities that bring teachers together to plan, teach/observe, reflect, and revise lessons (Paine, Fang and Jiang, 2015; Han and Paine, 2010). In the US education system only more recently have sites for such kind of lesson-study work emerged, both in the preservice and in-service experience of teachers (Bieda, Cavanna, and Ji, 2015;  Lewis, Perry and Hurd, 2006; Lewis, Perry and Murata, 2006; Fernandez, 2002).  Earlier research has raised the problems of “contrived collegiality” (Hargeaves, 2000; Wang and Paine, 2003).  Contexts are powerful influences on the time, structures, norms and resources for collaboration, as well as what kinds of reflection is possible.  This paper looks across types of contexts—national, cultural/micro-political, and preservice/inservice—to examine the challenges of creating authentic reflection, rather than reflection for the purposes of performance, and consider the ways it can deepen teachers’ learning to support student learning.

Paper 2:          Circular Staircases of “Design–Practice–Reflection” in the Lesson Study of School as Learning Community

Speaker: Manabu Sato, Gakushuin University & University of Tokyo, Japan

The lesson study of “school as learning community” which has made an impact to reform schools within Japan and other Asian countries is composed of three circular staircases of “design-practice-reflection” of experiences of learning and teaching. Through this process, the lesson study provides enhanced lenses which enable teachers to transform “invisible practice” to “visible practice” and opens an avenue through which teachers can transform themselves from “impossible professional” to “possible professional”. Learning for both students and teachers is least useful when it is hidden and private while it is most powerful if it becomes public, dialogic and communal. Therefore, the focus of LS in SLC is not teaching but learning and not planning and evaluation of teaching but the design and reflection of learning. The main purpose of LS in SLC is to build a thoughtful and reflective learning community both within classrooms and staffroom. When the work of communities of professional practice is created, individual experience becomes communal, and distributed expertise in practice, mission and responsibility can be shared, and practical wisdom can be developed.Design, practice, and reflection are all captured with uncertainty, the very feature of which is the main locus where professional learning community is originated.

Presentation Code

4B

Title

Enhancing Chinese Students’ English Competence through Lesson Study –Based on a Competence Framework

Presenter/s

Qiang Wang, Shaoqian Luo, Zehang Chen, Xin Ma, Xiaofang Qian

and Xiaohui Sun

Affiliations

Beijing Normal University (China)

Type of presentation

Symposium

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Red)

Abstract

Enhancing Chinese Students’ English Competence through Lesson Study –Based on a Competence Framework

WANG Qiang (Chairperson)

How to improve the quality of English education in schools has been a primary concern in China. In the past 15 years, much effort has been made to improve the quality of teaching along with the 21st century curriculum reform but many classrooms are still found largely teacher-centered with little attention paid to student learning. Based on a newly developed English competence framework focusing on improving students’ language performance including linguistic and cognitive domains in English language learning, we introduced this framework to Chinese primary and secondary school English reading classes through lesson studies. The general procedure consists of developing and administering diagnostic tests, test-result analysis, and instructional design to improve weak areas, implementation and post-tests. This symposium reports three stories of three English teachers on how they used the competence framework to improve their students’ English reading performance and what have been achieved. The lesson study practices were carried out by school teachers with the support from university researchers.

The organization of the symposium

The symposium consists of five parts, a 15-minute introduction to the research background, including the English competence framework, research design and procedures. This is followed by three 15-minutepresentations on three lesson studies in the form of stories based on various data collected illustrating the changes in teacher’s instructional design and students’ language performance. Time will also be given to audience interaction. A 15-minute summary along with a discussion of the insights gained from these lesson studies will be offered by the discussant.

Story 1: From Closed, Controlled to Critical and Creative Thinking

CHEN Zehang, QIAN Xiaofang

This story illustrates how a high school English teacher Ms. Han, with the help of university researchers, transforms her teaching from focusing on students’ lower order thinking skills to developing their higher order thinking skills in reading lessons.

A narrative and various data sources including different phases of lesson plans, class observations, interviews, tests, teacher’s reflections, and project reports were all used.

After three rounds of lesson study, Ms. Han’s students improved in the identified need-to-improve areas from the pre-test and displayed abilities in critical and creative thinking with more coherent language performance. All these happened after the teacher’s realization that the students are able to think critically if they are given the opportunity and inspired to do so.

The success story of Ms. Han’s class suggests that to substantially develop student’s’ abilities, teachers must first understand that her ways of teaching may have limited the development of her students thinking.

Story 2: From Isolated Knowledge Pieces to Structured Woven Pictures

LUO Shaoqian, SUN Xiaohui

This story demonstrates how a high school English teacher, Ms. Lin, helps students develop structured knowledge to aid comprehension of a reading lesson as her students were found weak in this area by the pre-test based on the English competence framework.

Data sources were episodes of class observations, interviews, pre-and-post tests, documents, teachers’ written reflections, and project reports.

The following findings are presented:

1) Students’ performance on reading comprehension improved;

2) Students’ ability to internalize what they learned improved. All these result are from the teacher’s improved ability to weave together isolated knowledge from a text.

This story informs us that students’ language development in comprehension and production depends on their teacher’s ability to organize and restructure the information in the text.

Story 3: From Doing Blank-filling Exercises to Creating Coherent Texts

MA Xin 

This story tells how a high school teacher, Ms. Ding, applied the English competence framework in her reading lesson to improve her students’ ability to express themselves in a meaningful and coherent way. The need-to-improve areas were identified from a pre-test. Ms. Ding then focused her lesson study on changing her instructions from test-oriented to more meaningful teaching through repeated instructional designs and teaching practice.

Data collected includes Ms. Ding’s lesson plans, reflections and pre- and post-test results, and episodes of classes at different phases.

The following findings are presented:

1) Students’ learning interests enhanced;

2) their reading skills improved; and

3) their written English was more coherent.

This story shows that teacher change has an impact student learning and students’ language performance is closely related to the teachers’ teaching methods.

Discussant:

LUO Shaoqian

What Have We Learned from the Projects?

The Competence Framework to Improve Students’ English Learning is on improving students’ language performance including linguistic and cognitive domains in English language learning, it is a framework that aims at not only the language abilities, but also abilities to think critically and creatively. The above three stories are examples of how the Competence Framework benefits both teachers and students in that (1) teachers’ allowing students to think will definitely enhance learners’ ability to think critically; (2) teacher’s ability to organize and restructure text information will boost students’ logic and comprehension of the text; (3) teacher change will have an impact on student learning and becoming more coherent language users.

Presentation Code

4Ca

Title

How the Gap between Students’ Understanding of Science Concepts and Teachers’ Idea has Appeared and been treated in Lesson Study

Presenter/s

Kyoko Ishii

Affiliations

Tamagawa University (Japan)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Forum Seminar Room 1)

Abstract

The discrepancies between teachers’ intensions for a lesson and learners’ experiences have long been a topic for discussion in science education (Driver, 1985; Redish, 2003). Studying the gap is an effective way to improve teaching. However, most teachers cannot recognize the gap while teaching.

This study examined how the gap between students’ understanding of scientific concepts and teachers’ predictions of their understanding comes about in a class. It uses a qualitative approach to examine the researchers’ observational notes compared with teachers’ lesson plans during 21 research lessons presented at junior and high school levels in Fukui prefecture. For more analysis, four teachers’ practices and their reflections are examined in detail. The reflection and the improvement processes of the teachers were investigated, along with their longitudinal collaborative action research reports.

The results show that the students’ misunderstanding appeared in group work or experiments in 13 out of 21 lessons. In the lesson plan, the teacher said to “make sure of” or “review” the students’ understanding of how to approach “today’s activity.” At beginning of the lessons, the teacher reviewed the general understanding of the topic with the whole class. Several students agreed that they had sufficient knowledge to proceed. But it is difficult to ascertain individual understanding from a whole-class dialogue. At the experiments, the observer noted some students’ confusion and misunderstanding. During the group discussion and experiments, students who do not understand can express their confusion; when this happens, teachers often believe that they have taught the material, but the message has not truly arrived for the students.

Four teachers said that this experience was a turning point of their teaching in their longitudinal collaborative action research reports. They found a lesson study with colleagues and researchers is important to improve their practices.

The gap between students’ learning and teachers’ ideas exists everywhere. A lesson study is the chance to find a gap between the teacher’s plans and students’ understanding. To cultivate a professional learning community, all participants must have an equal relationship.

Presentation Code

4Cb

Title

What do Teachers Mean when they say that students understand?: Collective Conceptual Orientations and Teacher Learning in Lesson Study.

Presenter/s

Aki Murata

Affiliations

University of Florida (United States of America)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Forum Seminar Room 1)

Abstract

Research literature supports the effectiveness of teacher professional development that focuses collaborative investigation on student learning (see for example: Birman et al., 2000; Carpenter et al., 1989).  With this general approach, teacher communities vary in their purposes and processes, and what actually goes on in each teacher group may be quite unique (Horn & Little, 2010; Savitt, et al., 2012).  Each teacher community is nested within a school culture, and each individual teacher in the community also brings his/her orientation to teaching and learning (Opfer & Pedder, 2011).  We investigated two lesson study groups’ learning processes to unpack the interactional characteristics of the professional learning processes.

In this study, we consider individual teacher’s learning to be embedded within group learning, framed by lesson study. 

We asked the following research questions:  What are the collective conceptual orientations toward student learning in two lesson study groups?  How are the collective orientations maintained in the lesson study meetings?  How do different orientations affect their research lessons and opportunities for students to learn?

Lesson study groups in two elementary schools in a Southeastern United States district participated in the study. All planning meetings, research lessons, and debriefings were video recorded.  All teaching- and learning-related materials were also collected.  Meeting data were qualitatively analyzed through multiple stages to identify collective conceptual orientations for both groups.   We paid special attention to talk moves when a teacher’s talk deviated away from the orientation norms in each group.  We then analyzed the research lesson data and teacher background data for how the group orientations were influenced and reflected.

The study found that two lesson study groups differed in their conceptualization of student learning: one focused on procedural processes, and another on conceptual development.  Both lesson study groups had patterns of talk moves in which teachers maintained their discussions to stay within own orientations.  Facilitators played key roles in maintaining the flow of the conversation, while other teachers worked actively to stay within the orientation.  The research lessons reflected each group’s orientation in terms of student learning, and created different learning opportunities.  The findings of the study suggest we cannot assume teachers’ learning when they engage in collaborative professional development and discuss student learning.  Additional support may be necessary to direct their learning in certain directions.  Collective conceptual orientations need to be addressed at a school level.

Presentation Code

4Cc Download

Title

Moments of Conflict or Moments of Learning: Is it Necessary to Create Professional Conflict in Lesson Study Teams to Enable Teacher Learning?

Presenter/s

John Paul Mynott

Affiliations

Central Primary School (United Kingdom)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Forum Seminar Room 1)

Abstract

As part of my doctorate research I have explored the introduction of Lesson Study as a teacher development process, into my urban primary school. In 2013, we established four Lesson Study teams who set out to explore aspects of Mathematics using the Lesson Study process to increase collaboration and reduced isolation between teachers. My research data has shown that outcomes of Lesson Study groups can be variable and this paper explores the reasons for these outcomes. By looking closely at the conversations in the post lesson reviews I have mapped moments of conflict in different Lesson study teams which has led to teacher change/ learning. This paper explores this data to pursue the question: Is it necessary to create professional conflict in Lesson Study teams to enable teacher learning?

The Lesson Study process used in my research data collection is based upon Dudley’s (2012) and Fernandez & Yoshida’s (2004) Lesson Study models and follows two Lesson Study team’s conversations throughout a full five lesson cycle. The exploration of each team’s journey is then reviewed using a framework based on Achinstein’s (2002) writings on conflict in schools and Festinger’s (1957) theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Using this framework, I have analyzed the conversations of two Lesson Study teams – one successful in generating teacher learning and one less successful - and I show through their comparison the differences and similarities that can occur in Lesson Study teams. I reflect on these differences and using these comparisons, I then explore the link between the generation of professional conflict and moments of teacher learning. It is through the comparison of these two Lesson Study teams that I show how important the generation of professional conflict is to teacher learning in Lesson Study. As a Lesson Study team that fails to generate professional conflict is unable to demonstrate the same teacher learning outcomes as the one that does. This then leads to further consideration of the need to prepare teachers in professional conflict before exploring Lesson Study processes with them. So that teachers are facilitated to develop moments of professional conflict that may become moments of teacher learning.

Presentation Code

4Da

Title

Sharing and Jumping Tasks for Enhancing Chemistry Learning at High School

Presenter/s

Sumar Hendayana, Asel Supriatna, Elsa Alpha Edyani, Lia Komalia

Affiliations

Indonesia University of Education (Indonesia)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Creating knowledge in practice; action research and other practice based research approaches

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Forum Seminar Room 2)

Abstract

Tenth grade high school students had difficulties in learning chemistry, such as interpreting chemical reactions into correct chemical equation. They had difficulties in determining the chemical formulas and reaction coefficient. Chemical equation is an essential concept of chemistry. According to Vygotsky, there is Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), students can achieve potential development level with some assistant and support. We expect that through sharing tasks, slower learning students can get support from others during collaborative learning to overcome their difficulties in learning chemistry. A jumping tasks is a challenge task that goes beyond the curriculum target to promote student active learning.  This is a case study of 5 chemistry lessons with different topics (chemical reaction, mass conservation law, law of definite proportion, empirical and chemical formula, and electrolyte) for the tenth grade students. Research questions are as follows: (1) what are student obstacles in learning chemistry of those topics? (2) how to design a sharing and jumping task? (3) how do tenth grade students learn? To answer the research questions, a teacher, two teacher educators, and five graduate students collaboratively designed lessons which considering sharing and jumping task. Then, a team teaching of a chemistry teacher of attached high school and a graduate student taught the designed lesson while others observed the lesson followed by post-class discussion to reflect the lesson for feedback to next lessons. Data collection was done through lesson observation, interview with teacher and students, and student assessment. Five lessons of 5 different topics were observed and recorded by video camera and voice recorder for further lesson analysis. We interviewed a chemistry teacher and 5 student teachers of graduate students to obtain information regarding teaching perception. It was found that identified student obstacles included how to write formulae of chemical molecules and to balance the chemical equation. The lesson design included predictions of student response and its anticipation in the introduction session to encourage students to learn, sharing tasks provided students with problems in curriculum content, and jumping tasks provided students with problems beyond curriculum content. Based upon student assessment of essay test, student achievement was improved as indicated by score improvement of 85% students or 30 out of 35 students, from first to fifth lessons.  The findings of lesson observation supported the improvement that slower learning students learned from others within the group, so they were motivated to learn.

Presentation Code

4Db

Title

How do We Create Jumping Task to Advance Students' Understanding?

Presenter/s

Kazuo Kobayashi

Affiliations

University of Fukui (Japan)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Creating knowledge in practice; action research and other practice based research approaches

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Forum Seminar Room 2)

Abstract

How do we create jumping tasks to advance students' understanding?" was one of the big questions at The 3rd International Conference of School as Learning Community. Meeting the challenge of answering this question successfully is very important for teachers to improve the quality of their lessons because jumping tasks are essential for facilitating deep learning.  But teachers tend to have difficulty in creating and scaffolding authentic jumping tasks, especially in daily lessons. Thus, the objective of this study is advancing concrete practices for discussions in answering this big question based on using the case study approach in Japan.

Presentation Code

4Dc

Title

An Analysis of the Types of Questions in the National Examination and Students’ Perception of Test Types Involving Critical Thinking and Reasoning Skills

Presenter/s

Pupung Purnawarman,  Nahadi Nahadi and Farida Sarimaya

Affiliations

Universitas Pendidikan (Indonesia)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Creating knowledge in practice; action research and other practice based research approaches

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Forum Seminar Room 2)

Abstract

This paper discusses several issues surrounding the types of questions used in the National Examination for high school students in Indonesia, especially relating to critical thinking and reasoning. Test questions in the recent National Examination were analyzed and were compared to similar questions developed by PISA and TIMSS as the benchmarks. Document analysis techniques were used and rubrics were developed to analyze questions in the National Examination. Questions analyzed in this study covered the questions from a recent National Examination on three subjects tested in the exam, namely English, Sociology, and Chemistry. These subjects were chosen as they represent the three majors in Indonesian high schools (Language, Social Sciences, and Natural Sciences).  Test items of each subject were analyzed to determine the extent of the application of the principles in relation to students’ critical thinking, reasoning, and habits of mind. In addition, test prototypes were developed by applying the critical thinking and reasoning aspects and were tried out in some schools which implemented Lesson Study program. Schools implementing Lesson Study program were chosen as in West Java province Lesson Study activities help teachers emphasize student-centered learning activities that promote critical thinking and reasoning in the Plan-Do-See phases of lesson study. To check students’ perception of the test prototypes, a set of questionnaires were distributed to the students in participating schools. Results of the study indicate that more than half of the test questions in the National Examination apply the principles of critical thinking and reasoning aspects. Additional findings indicate that students in the school implementing Lesson Study program prefer the types of questions that involve higher order thinking and reasoning skills. Implications of study findings to future teaching practice are that teachers should increase the proportion of critical thinking and reasoning aspects in teaching-learning activities and facilitate students to get accustomed to test questions involving critical thinking and reasoning skills.

Presentation Code

4E

Title

Lesson Study - Engaging, Embedding and Expanding

Presenter/s

Alan Eathorne

Affiliations

Meadowdale Primary School (United Kingdom)

Type of presentation

Workshop

Strand

Leadership, management and policy aspects of lesson study

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Peter Chalk Room 2: 1.4-1.6)

Abstract

With the recent trend in schools towards the use of Evidence Based Teaching (EBT) as a method of developing schools and its use as a vehicle to creating the self-sustaining school model, Affinity Teaching School Alliance wanted to ascertain how many schools were engaging in EBT. In particular this project aimed to find out how and why some schools had begun using EBT and why some schools were not actively engaged. The project found that there were a number of real and perceived barriers that were stopping schools becoming engaged in EBT approaches such as Lesson Study. By analyzing findings from an initial audit, and by using the experience of schools who were actively using Lesson Study, the Teaching School Alliance was able to create a ‘Getting Started in Lesson Study’ program that supported schools to get through the barriers and begin to use Lesson Study within their school as a tool for school development. Through interpretivist approaches, this study was able to show that as well as schools becoming engaged with Lesson Study these approaches were also becoming the basis of culture change within the school.  This enquiry is part of Manchester Metropolitan University’s ‘Evidence Based Teaching: advancing capability and capacity for enquiry in schools’ project for the National College for Teaching and Leadership. This workshop aims to encourage individuals to reflect on and discuss possible strategies for expanding the use of Lesson Study across a Multi Academy Trust, Teaching School or group of schools.  The workshop will draw upon the experiences we have had in our teaching school in engaging a group of schools who were, up until that point, not using Lesson Study. It will allow time for colleagues to reflect on their group of schools and consider why some may not be engaged and plan for what they could do to aid this. We will discuss the possible barriers to schools using Lesson Study and possible solutions we have observed and how to build a research and sharing culture between schools.  There will be - Small group sharing of ideas (mind mapping) considering possible barriers and solutions to them before feeding these into a whole group mind mapping activity.  - Working from participants’ questions or issued raised - Individual action planning activity (to take back to context considering ‘How might I get other schools involved in using Lesson Study?)

Presentation Code

4Fa

Title

Case Study of a Learning Study Project

Presenter/s

Sau Mei Chan and Farah Hasinah Binte Abdul Wahab

Affiliations

Northland Primary School (Singapore)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Learning studies

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Purple)

Abstract

A Learning Study, as opposed to a Lesson Study, always adopts the ‘object of learning’ as the starting point of a research question (Cheng & Lo, 2013).   Its systematic method of inquiry invariably follows the sequence of planning, implementation and evaluation of the research question.  Collaborative in nature, it presents teachers with an authentic learning experience to jointly construct pedagogical knowledge with the aim of enhancing effectiveness in student learning.  Furthermore, Learning Study seeks to incorporate the Variation Theory and embed formative assessment strategies in the design of a lesson to bring the object of learning into focus.

Variation Theory posits that learning is dependent on discernment, and discernment is, in turn, a function of variation.  Specifically, the Variation Theory asserts that differences in students’ prior knowledge, and teachers’ management of the object of learning, as well as the use of different patterns of variation in the giving of examples, can have a significant bearing on students’ learning.  According to Marton (2009), a learner cannot fully understand a feature of an aspect without experiencing a systematic variation in the feature of that aspect.  The application of Variation Theory, coupled with the use of formative assessment strategies, can considerably sharpen the focus of a lesson and better enable teachers to discern students’ learning on the spot.

The presentation will illustrate a case study which traces the learning journey of a group of primary school teachers who embarked on a learning study project to teach a Primary 5 (11-year-old) class the skill of inferencing.  The learning of inference skills is by far one of the major stumbling blocks for many readers, and this seriously hampers their understanding when reading.  This presentation will demonstrate how the group of teachers determined the point of hindrance to making correct inferences in the learning study project using results from a pre-test.  In addition, the presentation will illustrate in detail how Variation Theory and the use of formative assessment strategies were woven into the lesson design so as to effectively address the students’ learning needs in the skill of making inferences.  The presentation will also demonstrate how effectively the students acquired the skill of inferencing by presenting the findings of the post-test. 

In addition, the presentation aims to capture the major learning points by this group of teachers whose collaboration not only enabled them to develop professionally, but also served to enhance their students’ learning.

Presentation Code

4Fb

Title

Snip, Snap, Snout: Is This Tale Really Told Out?

Presenter/s

Ann-Christin Mouantri, Annika Nordahl, Johanna Adellian and Johanna Jonegård

Affiliations

Sjöstadsskolan School (Sweden)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Learning studies

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Purple)

Abstract

We are currently conducting a Learning study in the subject Swedish, in year 7 at Sjöstadsskolan. The title of the study is Snip, snap, snout – is this tale told out?

The Pisa-results of Swedish pupils in the subject Swedish has deteriorated continuously over the years. The results at Sjöstadsskolan are relatively good, but we see a discrepancy between our pupils reading comprehension and their ability to write.

When analyzing texts, written by pupils, we have found that pupils in all ages have difficulties writing narrative readable texts, including beginning, content and ending.

A pre-test, resembling the Swedish national tests, was conducted in year 7. The test indicated that a relatively large amount of the pupils had difficulties writing an adequate ending to a narrative text. We therefore formulated two main questions: What is critical to be able to write a narrative text with a functional ending? How can teaching be designed in relation to this?

The aim of the study is to improve the pupils´ ability in writing functional and interesting endings to narrative texts and also to explore how teaching can make it possible for pupils to develop this ability. The theoretical framework of the study is variation theory.

The study is currently indicating that the pupils’ ability in writing functional endings in texts, are improving.  

Presentation Code

4Fc Download

Title

How to Make It Look Real, Art-Work, Grade 1

Presenter/s

Gunilla Pettersson Berggren and Elisabet Sand

Affiliations

Sjöstadsskolan School (Sweden)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Learning studies

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Purple)

Abstract

This paper presents a learning study on primary school art work at Sjöstadsskolan, Stockholm, Sweden. Sjöstadsskolan has used the learning study model as a teacher driven way of developing teaching and learning, since 2009. A group of art teachers and a mentor collaborated to identify the critical aspects in teaching the topic depicting three-dimensional objects, for instance a pot or a jar. The Swedish curriculum states as a core content: Tools for producing pictures:  Different elements that make up a picture: color, form, line, surface, foreground and background.

From the pre-test it was found that the student´s ability to create pictures of a jar full of pencils varied a lot. Some students lacked tools of how to depict the roundness, some used tricks from comic books or films and some asked for guidance in ”making it look like real”. The object of learning was expressed as: The ability to depict a three-dimensional object standing on a flat surface.

The first lesson in the learning study cycle was based upon a still life, where the teacher tried to point out the lines, the shadows, the colors, the form and foreground and back-ground.  Far too many aspects were addressed and the revised lesson number two focused more on the surface and the foreground. The third lesson showed major improvements in the post-test results, due to cutting down on the aspects shown and varied. According to variation theory the critical aspects should be varied in a powerful way in order for students to discern. The most important critical aspect was seen as: How the object meets the surface. When the students perceived the difference between a three-dimensional object and a two-dimensional one, they could clearly see the difference how they met the surface. When the students were able to discern the curved line from the pot meeting the table, they could more easily focus on that part of their drawing.

This study is an example of the importance to work with younger students´ ability to depict and not take for granted that students would develop capability on their own. Another conclusion from this study is that teachers can improve teaching and student learning by structured collaborative work.

Presentation Code

4Ga Download

Title

How to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Teaching Methods? A Fundamental Issue for Pre-Service Teachers Forming Lesson Study Teams

Presenter/s

Sveva Grigioni Baur and Shannon Morago

Affiliations

Haute Ecole Pédagogique (Switzerland)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Peter Chalk room 3: 2.1-2.3)

Abstract

"How evaluate the effectiveness of teaching methods? A fundamental issue for pre-service teachers forming Lesson Study teams"

The international collaboration between the University of Teacher Education, State of Vaud (HEP) and Humboldt State University (HSU) is in its fifth year of production. Two professors, one from each institution involved in the project, have formed every academic year a Lesson Study team consist of 6 pre-service teachers. Each team is coached by both faculty members. The Lesson Study team develop a natural science lesson with two guidelines: 1) the lesson must especially engage marginalized or foreign language learners and 2) it must be place-based and culturally linked to the population of pupils. The students enact the lessons a total of six times.

During the Lesson Study, students learn how to use this collaborative process in order to improve the relevance of their lesson through the monitoring of pupils reactions and feedbacks. As they modify their lesson plan on collecting data and making observations during the lesson, they have to build a precise schedule. The construction and gradual modification of the observation grid is an important collaboration skill that evolves all along the Lesson Study process.

The two faculty members carry out a research work on a common interest related to Lesson Study and to the role of natural science teaching on the integration of diverse learners and to the evolution of students' intercultural and professional skills that are modified by this collaboration.

The aim of this oral presentation is to point out the main features of the evolution of pupil observation schedules, which represent a significant progression of student professional skills. The grids are compared and their effectiveness is discussed. Students who participate to this international collaboration are interviewed on their experience and on the professional benefits they have notices on their practices. All the results collected by the faculty members are put in perspective for the assumption of significant teaching professional benefits.

   

Presentation Code

4Gb Download

Title

The Impact of Lesson Study on Students Learning Activities at the University of Cokroaminoto Palopo

Presenter/s

Rusdiana Junaid,  Rustan Santaria, Hafirah Patang and Magfirah Thayyib

Affiliations

The University of Cokroaminoto Palopo (Indonesia)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Peter Chalk room 3: 2.1-2.3)

Abstract

Lesson Study has been implemented at the University of Cokroaminoto Palopo (UNCP), South Sulawesi, Indonesia since 2013. The focus has been in two faculties, namely the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, which involved four study programs and the Faculty of Science, which involved two study programs. Since the implementation of the lesson study at this university, considerable research have been undertaken by the role model lecturers, such as the improvement of lecturers’ collegiality, the implementation of certain teaching models, methods, and strategies through lesson study activities, and the change of the lecturers’ mindset. However, none has looked at the impact of lesson study on the students learning activities. Therefore, this paper aims at giving an overview of the impact of lesson study on the students learning activities at the University of Cokroaminoto Palopo. It highlights some of the main differences in the students learning activities across several subjects both before and after lesson study was implemented.  The focus of the inquiry is “What are the effects of lesson study on the students learning activities?” This study involved 16 role model lecturers from 6 different study programs. Data were collected through an open-ended questionnaire, observers’ field notes, and an observation checklist. The open-ended questionnaire was distributed to the 16 role model lecturers. The observation checklist was focused on activities and interaction between the role model lecturers and the students in the open class sessions. Data collected were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results of the data analysis shows that there are at least six major impacts of lesson study on students learning activities. They are: 1) increasing the students’ collaborative engagements, 2) promoting the students’ learning autonomy or creating self-regulated learners, 3) improving the students’ critical thinking, 4) stimulating mutual respect among the students, 5) developing the students’ creativity, and 6) Elevating the students’ self-confidence.  

Presentation Code

4Ha Download

Title

Lesson Study and Pupil Voice: Creating the Space for Empowerment

Presenter/s

David Allan, Ella O'Doherty, Paul Smalley and David Boorman

Affiliations

Edge Hill University (United Kingdom)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/Location

  Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Green)

Abstract

This paper looks at the use of lesson study in primary schools in England as a powerful tool for changing teachers’ perceptions and for empowering children in their learning. It draws on a Bourdieusian framework to illustrate the capacity for lesson study to challenge existing school inequities that can arise from an imbalance of cultural, and often social, capital. It is argued that the combination of an intense focus on two/three case pupils and a post-lesson discussion involving those pupils provides a critical space for disaffected children to challenge the current hegemonic capital of others. The research draws on data collected in the north-west of England through 28 interviews with teachers and observation of ten post-lesson discussions. Bourdieu’s concept of capital is used to analyze teachers’ perceptions of pupil hegemony and to frame lesson study as a potential vehicle for generating equality in the classroom. Thus, lesson study is seen to promote a dialogic space for critical thinking in order to facilitate a growth in children’s self-esteem. As such, previously disengaged children are empowered to contribute to the teaching and learning process.

Presentation Code

4Hb Download

Title

Impact of a Lesson Study Project on Teachers’ Professional Development and Pupils’ Learning

Presenter/s

Julien Buchard and Daniel Martin

Affiliations

Haute Ecole Pédagogique Vaud (Switzerland)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/Location

  Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Green)

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to build a theoretical framework through a literature review to evaluate lesson studies embedded in the scholastic context of Lausanne, French-speaking Switzerland.

Firstly, we provide an overview of the methods used worldwide to measure the effects of Lesson Study on teachers and pupils. In order to do this, we did a comprehensive literature review and conducted semi-direct interviews with members of the Lausanne Laboratory Lesson Study (3LS) at the University of Teacher Education, Lausanne. Our respondents evoked some reasons to explain the limited number of well-controlled evaluation procedures in Lesson Studies forwarded by Cheung & Yee Wong (2014).

Secondly, we briefly define the goals of Lesson Study. Thirdly, we introduce theoretical models (especially based on the works of John Hattie and Helen Timperley) to provide food for thought on the most effective ways to measure the impact of Lesson Study on teachers and pupils. One of the key elements taken into consideration was effectiveness of teaching. This is related to the quality of feedback, curriculum alignment and metacognition. In addition, the quality of learning was also identified as an important element as it tests pupils’ knowledge and learning processes. The link between teaching including teacher preparation through the lesson study project meetings and learning was also explored.

Lastly, we suggest ways of storing and analyzing lesson study data notably project meeting recordings, research lessons as well as pre- and post-interviews during the experiment, lesson plans, surveys as well as pupils’ productions and teaching aids. We do this in order to keep track of the effects of the process and short-term, mid-term and long term measures.

Presentation Code

4Hc Download

Title

Teacher Collaboration through Lesson Study to Improve the Understanding of Student Learning

Presenter/s

Wullan Novianasari

Affiliations

  GagasCeria Primary School (Indonesia)

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/Location

  Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Green)

Abstract

Mathematics teachers in GagasCeria Primary School at one point feel they have problems in teaching mathematics to children. At that time, each math teacher only teach one level. Although the school’s curriculum has been created as a spiral, the teacher felt there were concept development that feels jumping between the levels. This happen because strong understanding of the material only at the level the teacher teaches. The school encourage teachers to master material before and after level where he/she teach to help the learning process more effective. Lesson Study is one of the ways chosen to seek a solution of the problems experienced because it can facilitate discussion between cross-level teachers. Together as a team, mathematics teacher carry out a series of lesson study. Every teacher in the team conducted an open class once in 6 months. Teams work together to plan a lessons.

One of the concepts discussed is the geometry (two-dimensional figure). In teaching geometry, one of the targets of learning mathematics in national exams for primary school are the students able to calculate the area and perimeter of a combined two-dimensional figure. Initially the students have difficulties to identify basic shapes that form a combined figure, making it difficult to calculate the area and perimeter. The team trying to find its core, the concept of which is related in a previous class. Later it was found that in the previous class they have to play a lot of forms and identify basic shapes (square, rectangle, triangle, circle, half and quarter circle), recognize the concept of area and perimeter. From these findings, the team determines the learning objectives to be achieved in each grade. Through this better stages of learning, students have more understanding about the concepts and more easily complete the final test in grade 6 (national exams).

With the collaboration, each member of the team can solve problems that arise. The cross-level discussion helps teachers to understand materials other than the material she/he teach in her/his level. In addition, the collaboration also develop team members to better understand the curriculum, studying material, and learning strategies. It also has an impact on the achievement of children in learning.

Presentation Code

4I Download

Title

What Is to be Learned and How to Design for Learning? Experiences from Three Learning Studies.

Presenter/s

Ulla Runesson, Keith Wood Jenny Svantesson Wester Helene Bergentoft and Clare Lindström

Affiliations

Jönköping University (Sweden)

Type of presentation

Symposium

Strand

Creating knowledge in practice; action research and other practice based research approaches.

Time/Location

  Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Queen’s Lecture Theatre 2)

Abstract

Learning study is a form of theory informed action research. Results from three Learning studies — English as a foreign language, Physical education and Mathematics — will be used to illustrate how Learning study, by focusing on the object of learning and guided by variation theory, can give insights into critical aspects of learning and how lessons could be designed to make learning possible.

Two Tenses are Better than One - Using Contrast and Complexity to Develop Grammatical Understanding (Clare Lindström,

Jönköping University, Sweden)

When teaching new subject content, common pedagogical procedures include separating and presenting content ‘one thing at a time’, and also using simplified explanations and examples. Using results from a Learning Study (LrS) on English grammar with Swedish 6th grade pupils, the aim of this paper is to critically reflect on these teaching conventions and to discuss how they were challenged in the LrS. The object of learning in this LrS was the ability to use the English progressive aspect (PROG) in a syntactically and semantically accurate way. The PROG was first presented in the present tense, which is seen as the ‘simplest’ tense. This is an established way of teaching the PROG and is found in many teaching handbooks. However, the results indicate that using only the present tense prevented the pupils from discerning the full meaning of the PROG. When the past tense was included and also presented first, pupils achieved a deeper understanding, as suggested on post-lesson assessments and by the quality of pupil discussions during the lessons. The pupils also responded favorably when confronted with examples of grammatically incorrect sentences, challenging the teaching convention that discourages showing incorrect examples.

Better Running. What must be Learned?  (Helene Bergentoft, University of Gothenburg, Sweden)

Teaching of physical education in upper secondary school is aimed at students developing their ability to move, though is it unclear what the ability to move can imply (Nyberg & Larsson 2014). In teaching, the development of movement or the ability to move is, to a limited extent, the object of learning. Neither is it driven by a pedagogical idea, it is rather the activity that is at the centre of the lesson (Eriksson et al., 2005). A Learning study with 94 students were conducted at two upper secondary schools in Sweden. Together with seven teachers teaching physical education and health, five lessons have been implemented based on the framework of the variation theory. A phenomenographic analysis has been made of the running test that constituted the study's pre- and post-test. Clear differences could be discerned in the following areas: 1) the placement of body part in relation to one another, 2) the direction of kinetic energy and 3) the centre of gravity.<br />

The result of the analysis describes five qualitatively different way to know or experience body posture whilst running, as a) rotating torso, b) active arm oscillation and relaxed shoulders, c) heel insertion, d) sitting, and e) as a tilted tower.

A running movement consists of many different aspects. The results show that some of these aspects seem especially important to discern to develop a powerful personal body posture whilst running. These critical aspects, needs to be discerned simultaneously.

The Two-Way Communication during Teaching – Crucial for Discernment of Critical Aspects. (Jenny Svanteson Wester, Fenestra Centrum, University of Gothenburg, Sweden)

To help students to learn effectively, the teachers should, according to the variation theory, identify the critical aspects that the students must discern in order to learn and see an object of learning in the intended way. The aspects that are critical for the students’ learning are the ones that they are not yet aware of. In the Learning study with the variation theory as the framework, the interactive nature of the classroom turned out be crucial for the students’ learning outcome. In the third cycle the teacher encouraged the students to communicate about the content and by doing so the teacher and the students were given an opportunity to jointly enact patterns of variation where students’ misconceptions, or way of looking at the content, could be, not only visualized, but also problematized and the critical aspects could explicitly be discerned. The students also got the opportunity to more explicitly express what they had discerned and they were able to justify their answers more distinctly. In this presentation I will illuminate how critical aspects is articulating through the interaction during teaching in the learning study.

Presentation Code

4J Download1 Download2

Title

Lesson Study - Strengthening Lessons through Teacher Collaboration with a Focus on Different Educational Needs of Pupils

Presenter/s

Sui Lin Goei, Brahm Norwich, Tijmen Schipper, Tirza Bosma and Madeline Vreeburg

Affiliations

VU University Amsterdam (The Netherlands)

The University of Exeter (United Kingdom)

Type of presentation

Symposium

Strand

Special needs and inclusive education

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Blue)

Abstract

The studies in this symposium are focused on professional learning of teachers in secondary education through Lesson Study (LS). Central research question is: To what extent teachers focus on different educational needs of pupils in classroom situations when participating in a LS?. In LS classroom observations and team discussions are used to focus on pupil learning. The studies in this symposium borrowed from the UK model where ‘case pupils’ are used (Dudley, 2013) who represent different ability groups in the classroom.

Structure of the symposium

Paper 1: Lesson Study – Learning adaptive teaching through teacher collaboration

Tijmen Schipper (Windesheim University of Applied Sciences), Sui Lin Goei (VU University Amsterdam) Siebrich de Vries ( Groningen University) & Klaas van Veen (Groningen University) (The Netherlands).

This study examines to what extent Lesson Study enhances adaptive teaching competence in mainstream secondary education. The concept of adaptive teaching competence can be defined as “the ability of teachers to adjust their planning and teaching to the individual learning processes of students” (Brühwiler & Blatchford, 2011, p. 98). Since classrooms have become more diverse, adaptive teaching seems inevitable, yet turns out to be complex. Lesson Study may well address this issue due to its explicit focus on pupil learning. The main research question in this study is: to what extent does LS enhance teacher professional growth in terms of adaptive teaching competence, and which elements in LS facilitate or constrain this process? After the completion of Lesson Study cycles, 22 teachers from different schools were interviewed. The interviews were analyzed using the Interconnected Model of Professional Growth (Clarke & Hollingsworth, 2002). The results show that teachers become more aware of pupils’ educational needs, but facilitating conditions seem to be essential in addressing these needs. 

Paper 2: Lesson Study – Learning to differentiate through teacher collaboration (Tirza Bosma & Sui Lin Goei, VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands).

The second study aims to explore how six Dutch Language teachers design innovative lessons for differentiated instruction in an inclusive setting in the Netherlands, using Lesson Study as their collaborative vehicle. At present, the educational (support) needs of our pupils have changed, both because of our changing society and as a result of the call for inclusive education, which urges teachers to increasingly adapt their instruction to the needs of all pupils. However, teachers in secondary education in the Netherlands as yet do not typically incorporate differentiated instruction in their lessons. We provide a case study based on discourse analysis of the recorded meetings of Dutch Language teachers participating in a modified Lesson Study approach (Goei, 2013), as implemented in a preparatory vocational secondary school in the northwestern part of the Netherlands. Discourse analysis was framed regarding elements of differentiated instruction according to Tomlinson et al. (2003). The results demonstrated a development through Lesson Study in teachers’ consciousness of pupils’ learning needs and how these needs could be met. The contribution of Lesson Study to the process of collaboratively designing differentiated instruction is described and ideas for further research are suggested.

Paper 3: Lesson Study – Learning from Pupils’ Perspectives through Teacher Collaboration (Madeleine Vreeburg & Sui Lin Goei (VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands).

Lesson Study research typically focuses on the learning activities and processes of the pupils. However, the interest and opinions of the pupils are often not included or involved. This study focuses on the feedback from (case) pupils on their perspective of the delivered research lessons and their ideas for subsequent teaching. Case-pupils’ feedback was systematically elicited by their teachers involved in a Lesson Study through small semi-structured interviews held immediately after the delivered research lesson (Dudley, 2013). The rest of the pupils was asked to fill in a short survey containing the same questions. The questions were derived from NCSL (2005) and were translated into Dutch.

Case-pupil interviews and classroom surveys were gathered through teachers participating in nine LS teams from 2013-15, six LS teams from 2014-15, and from five LS teams from 2015-16. Results show that pupils report they value to be an active partner in the learning process, they appreciate an explicit instruction, preferably combined with active and structured learning. Also their suggestions to improve the delivered lesson are quite explicit and exact. Teachers involved report that the formative information they elicit from the pupils contributes to redesigning the next lesson.

Presentation Code

4Ka

Title

Literacy Practices in Teacher Professional Development: A Shift to Learners’ Independent and Collaborative Learning in South African Primary Schools

Presenter/s

Noel Manganye

Affiliations

University of Limpopo (South Africa)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Peter Chalk Room 1: 1.1-1.3)

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to present literacy practices in teacher professional development, a shift from teachers’ lesson presentation method to learners’ independent and collaborative learning in South African primary schools. The study used observation and interview methods to collect data from teachers and learners in South African classrooms. The findings show that independent and collaborative learning are more effective in learners understanding of complex lessons in English Second Language context. Therefore, teachers need to move from the traditional way of teaching in which they would provide notes, use presentation method and other front of the classroom practices to sitting down with learners to facilitate their independent and collaborative learning. The implication is that South African teacher training institutions should design programs for in-service teachers which will enable teachers to understand their role and instructional responsibilities. However, this study is important since it highlights pertinent issues on teacher professional development literacy in disadvantaged basic education primary schools in South Africa.  

Presentation Code

4Kb Download

Title

Standardisation of SBQ Marking Conventions for More Effective Learning

Presenter/s

Helen Hiang Huang Tan and  Yuslina Mohamed Salleh

Affiliations

Coral Secondary School (Singapore)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Peter Chalk Room 1: 1.1-1.3)

Abstract

In teaching Source-based Questions (SBQ) skills for Social Studies and History, teacher's feedback on students' written work would impact their learning. As teachers did not have a common set of marking symbols, feedback was often unclear to students. Secondly, it has been observed that students remained passive in receiving feedback. This Lesson Study (LS) seeks to explore how the standardization of marking symbols can provide more effective feedback to students. Through the symbols, students develop the ability to do self-correction as they can better understand the requirements of the various skills.  Thus, they also become active receivers of feedback. Research has shown that teachers' feedback following assessment is important in students' learning and "feedback should be used in which students benefit from it and they are encouraged to take more responsibility for their learning".  Thus, "embedding grading as a part of a student's learning experience can have benefits that go beyond learning specific subject-matter content".   Students will eventually become "more aware of their own strengths, progress, and gaps".  The LS was carried out on two mixed-gender classes of Secondary One History (13 years-old) and Secondary Three Social Studies (15 years-old). It entailed the collaboration among teachers in using the marking symbols for assessing SBQ exercises over four weeks. Teachers explained the marking symbols to students when their works were returned to them.  Subsequently, students marked their own works during which, teachers observed the process and data was collected and analyzed. From sample works marked by teachers and students, teachers' observations and a survey carried out at the end of the LS cycle, the perception data showed that majority of students and teachers found the self-assessment tool useful as students found a way to internalize the requirements of answering SBQ. Teachers find their teaching more effective as students become engaged and responsible in improving the quality of their assignments.

Presentation Code

4L Download1 Download2 Download3 Download4

Title

Dutch Lesson Study-Examples Of Mathematics Teacher Learning in a Professional Learning Community

Presenter/s

  Nellie Verhoef Verhoef, Stéphane Clivaz Mark Timmer and Tom   Coenen

Affiliations

  University of Twente (The Netherlands), 

 Lausanne University of Teacher Education, Switzerland

Type of presentation

  Symposium

Strand

  Developing professional learning communities: models and   practices

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Queen’s Lecture Theatre 1)

Abstract

This symposium presents the effects of Lesson Study on Dutch mathematics teacher learning in a Professional Learning Community. Six mathematics secondary school teachers from different schools collaborated since 2009. Each teacher was given an eight hour weekly reduction in teaching load from their management to participate. Next to the teachers, the Lesson Study team consisted of four staff members of the University of Twente: a mathematician, a mathematics teacher trainer, a PhD-candidate and the researcher (the leader, chair of the symposium). All staff members had specific roles in the Lesson Study team. Teacher instruction was directly connected to students’ understanding of mathematical concepts in secondary school (Skemp, 1976). Student understanding suggests subtle processes that occur in learning in which operations over time become thinkable concepts that exist outside a particular time (Tall, 2013). This symposium reveals teacher learning on three different mathematics topics: the derivative in analysis; the transition from the trigonometric relationships; and combinatorial reasoning.

Paper 1:The Introduction of the Derivative: The Use of Icons 

(Nellie Verhoef)

The Lesson Study team investigated Tall’s (2013) philosophy of long-term mathematical thinking in relation with Bruner’s (1966) framework of representations in the context of the derivative. The research instruments consisted of three lesson plans, field notes of student observations and written reports of the discussions at the teachers’ school, and the plenary reflections at the university (Lewis & Hurd, 2011). The study shows that the well-thought-off choice of an icon influences operational symbolism positively when the icon was simple chosen (without any extra information) (Verhoef, Coenders, van Smaalen, Pieters, & Tall, 2014). The choice of an icon, a dove tail at the graph, seems to hide a line segment inside from the top to the bottom of the arrow, which may give rise to the idea that the concept of the derivative is inseparable from a difference quotient. Subsequently, the difference quotient gives rise to the differential quotient with which dividing by zero appears as an obstacle. The arrow as a line segment and a v-sign on top may give rise to the assumption that there is a continuous move, because the direction is given and it resembles a vector used in physics. The line segment with halfway a dot is the first step to the relational understanding of the concept of a vector field as a basis for understanding differential equations in a later phase (Figure 1).

  Figure 1: Different representations of arrows

Paper 2:The Transition from the Trigonometric Relationships

(Mark Timmer)

The Lesson Study team developed the transition from triangle trigonometry to circle trigonometry using static as well as dynamical icons (Chin & Tall, 2012). The research instruments consisted of teachers’ lesson plans and video-tapes of (a) the enactment of the research lessons, (b) the post-lesson discussions at school and (c) the reflection meetings at the university. Two teachers used a windmill as an icon. The windmill elicited the use of symmetry and coordinates and helped students to reason about trigonometric characteristics. The use of computer applets stimulated the insight of the (co)sine as a function in calculus (Zengin, Furkan, & Kutluca, 2012). In this study we used lesson study to introduce daily classroom practices in learning communities whereby teachers learn from the students’ understanding (Verhoef & Tall, 2011). The results show that the teachers are more able, step by step, to understand how the students learn (Verhoef & Timmer, 2013). This study shows (agreeing with Chin and Tall (2012)) that in the case of trigonometric relationships involving ratios in right-angled triangles to functional representations of trigonometric functions appropriate for the calculus, teachers need to reflect on classroom activities to become sensitive to the issues that will arise in their classrooms (Cheung & Wong, 2014).

Paper 3

(Tom Coenen)

Research outcomes on combinatorial reasoning showed the various difficulties and pitfalls that students experienced (Batanero, 1997; Eizenberg, 2004; Hadar & Hadass, 1981; Lockwood, 2011). From this, a teaching method was designed on the topic of combinatorial reasoning problems, starting from thirteen problems as discussed in Batanero (1997). The teachers were asked to fill out a small exit questionnaire regarding their learning process. As much as possible, members of the Lesson Study team observed one case-student (Dudley, 2012) and the dynamics of the group as a whole. The field notes of the live observations functioned to stimulate the discussion after the lesson at the school directly. Especially for combinatorial reasoning problems, teachers discovered that coaching students to use their common sense and to build up their confidence can be more valuable for them than theoretical insight. However, for the chosen topic, acting out a problem proved to provide more insight than the use of pictures (Coenen, Hof, & Verhoef, 2015).

Presentation Code

4Ma

Title

Developing Kazakhstani School Culture with Lesson Study

Presenter/s

Zukhra Idrisheva and Kyzzhibek Abdramanova

Affiliations

Center of Excellence (Kazakhstan)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Peter Chalk Room 4: 2.4-2.6)

Abstract

The joint University of Cambridge and Center of Excellence AEO Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools in-service teacher training programme was introduced in January 2012. Within the programme Lesson Study was conceptualized as one of the drivers for transforming teaching practice. Along with other potentials, Center of Excellence trainers believe that Lesson study provides an opportunity for teacher reflection, critical friendship, sharing good practice and collaboration. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to evaluate the implementation of Lesson Study in Kazakhstani schools, particularly its influence on school culture improvement. Identifying how lesson study develops school culture in Kazakhstani context, the presentation will also reveal challenges within this process. AEO “Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools” and the administration (mayor) of Kyzylorda region according to the joint memorandum approved 22 innovative schools, which are implementing and distributing new ideas of the changes in the educational system.  In February 2016, the regional Department of Education and the Center of Excellence in Kyzylorda attached to these schools “magnetic schools”, to improve the professional network was established "Competence Center". Among coaching leaders of each innovative school, coordinators were appointed to carry out the work of the center. The branch of the Center of Excellence in Kyzylorda and "Competence Centre" has jointly designed an annual action plan, suggesting steps to implement the “Lesson study” approach in practice. School culture has become a central concept in implementing Lesson study to change how schools operate and improve educational results. The results of the surveys taken from the coach-leaders, coordinators of these schools show positive impact of the Lesson study to the school culture.  The issue of improving lesson plans, lesson observation, lesson analysis, raised during the interview with school leaders. Form the Lesson study reflective accounts of the coordinators the apparent improvement was seen in holding professional dialogue, a shift of the focus-observing students instead of the teacher, giving constructive feedback. This paper also includes barriers and the achievements in the implementation of the lesson study. The next step of the research is "How to improve the observation skills of Lesson study group members?"

Presentation Code

4Mb Download

Title

Mongolian Classroom Discourse In Historical And International Context: Through Lesson Analysis Of Mathematics Lessons

Presenter/s

Dulamjav Norjin, Altangoo Ochirbat and Ganbaatar Tumurbaatar

Affiliations

Nagoya University (Japan)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Peter Chalk Room 4: 2.4-2.6)

Abstract

Mongolia shifted from socialism to democracy and capitalism in 1990 and also sought an educational reform in the 2000s. Mongolian National University of Education (MNUE) implemented “OUTREACH” project in cooperation with University of Exeter, UK between 2005 and 2008. This project aimed at training teachers from rural regions to let them develop themselves as professionals at their workplaces, learn research skills and improve their methods. This was the first time when action research was introduced in Mongolia. Mongolia also introduced the lesson study in mathematics, physics and chemistry in rural elementary and secondary schools through cooperation with Japan International Cooperation Agency between 2006 and 2013. This was the first full-scale introduction of lesson study in Mongolia.

Basic criterion for good lesson in secondary education is pupils’ participation. But how can we measure pupils’ participation in a lesson? What would affect to the pupils’ participation in a lesson? How does the change of social system relate with the pupils’ participation in a lesson?

In order to discuss above mentioned research questions, the author uses the “Transcript Based Lesson Analysis” as one of the research methods for pupils’ participation.

Analytical and/or theoretical framework

The Institute of Teacher Professional Development (ITPD) of Mongolia collects best lesson videos from each school of whole country every year and ITPD puts some criteria for their lessons and chooses good practices and lessons. We chose videos of 4 mathematics lessons, which got higher points by experts and transcribed them, and counted some variables from each transcript. We identified some variables (number of utterance by teachers and pupils; number of open and closed questions; number of words of pupils’ utterances) to collect data and do quantitative and qualitative analysis.

For chosen lessons, frequencies of pupil`s utterance are relatively high but average of number of utterance a time was only 1-2 words. That showed us pupils' participation and expression skills are very underdeveloped and teachers' questions were inappropriate and not well planned. Finally we examine influences by educational methodology from socialist era to the elementary and secondary lessons in Mongolia through our research results. We believe it would make a contribution for the international comparative lesson studies, especially in transitional countries, from the historical perspective.

Presentation Code

4Mc

Title

The Individual In Collaborative Processes Framed by Lesson Study

Presenter/s

Charlotte Skott and Hanne Møller

Affiliations

University College Capital (Denmark)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Peter Chalk Room 4: 2.4-2.6)

Abstract

Potentials of Lesson Study (LS) as a method for teachers’ professional development (TPD) are well documented and convincing in the form of both examples from Japan and LS’s embodiment of identified principles for promising TPD approaches (Hennessy, 2014), such as teacher collaboration and an experimental conception of teaching. However, such LS qualities are not automatically delivered, and research agrees that cultural transfer is complex, since good ideas from one culture do not necessarily lead to good practices in another culture.

Research into the essential conditions under which LS contributes to TPD varies across different cultures. One strand of research focuses on ‘the right way’ to do LS, either by examining the ways Japanese teachers perform LS (Takahashi & McDougal, 2016) or by exploring how LS is used differently in other countries compared to Japan (Fujii, 2013). Another strand of research focuses on the identification of connections between aspects of LS and teachers’ development of knowledge or competencies (Perry & Lewis, 2009). The objective of many such studies is to suggest potentialities of LS by focusing on what teachers learn, and these studies tend to document rather than account theoretically for teachers’ learning.

We focus on how teachers learn in a Danish LS project by using a theoretical framework based on a participatory perspective on teachers’ learning called Patterns of Participation (PoP) (Skott, 2013). In PoP, a teacher’s learning is conceived as changes in her participation in classroom interactions, which are simultaneously influenced by her symbolic interpretations of meaning in the emergent interactions and by her re-engagements in former and present practices. Our research question is: How does a teacher develop her participation when engaging in collaborative LS processes? PoP’s focus on the individual teacher allows us to investigate the long-term participation of one mathematics teacher and one Danish-as-a-Mother-Tongue teacher from a public school. We collaborated with four teams of teachers and conducted two LS cycles per team. We used methods from discourse analysis (Fairclough, 2003) to investigate changes in the two teachers’ participation in planning, teaching/observing and reflecting in two research lessons. Our analyses suggest that the LS frame constitutes both a venue for the participants’ joint negotiations of new practices and a challenge to the teachers´ professional identify formation. On the basis of such micro-analyses of LS interactions, we aim to contribute new insight into how to scaffold teachers´ learning when engaging in LS.

Presentation Code

4Na

Title

Lesson Study on Primary 1 Students’ Oral Communication Skills

Presenter/s

Sook Kuan Chau and Pey Chyi Lai

Affiliations

  National Institute of Education (Singapore)

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

  Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/Location

  Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Collaborative)

Abstract

With the aim to enhance the students’ communication skills in Mother Tongue Languages, the Ministry of Education, Singapore implemented the “Interaction Resource Package for Primary Schools” in 2012 in all primary schools.  The Primary 1 resource package focused on teaching students to use short phrases and proper sentence structures for simple oral conversations. While using the resource package during classroom teaching, teachers observed that the content did not meet the needs of the Primary 1 students who wanted to express their thoughts further. As such, a group of Chinese Language teachers conducted a lesson study to find out how teachers could make changes to the syllabus to help the students learn more effectively. The paper presents an account of how the research team modified the lesson content of one of the units in the resource package, “My Family”, based on Piaget's theory of cognitive development (1953) and Mercer’s findings on attachment (2006), where “open-ended questions” were included to encourage the students to have more engaging conversation. The research team hypothesized that the Primary 1 students were able to describe their interactions with their family members and have the reasoning ability to explain “why they especially like one of them”. During the first research lesson, the teacher provided scaffolding with audio visual aids to help the students grasp the vocabulary and proper sentence structures. The research team observed that the students were able to construct proper sentences when guided, but were rather dependent on the lesson handouts during conversation with peers. During the second research lesson, cooperative learning strategies and peer evaluation were added to the lesson procedure making the lesson more student-centered. The research team observed that the students were able to engage in conversation with peers confidently and fluently without the handouts. Quantitative data were collected through pre- and post-tests and the data analysis showed that there was a significant increase in the students’ oral test scores after the research lessons. The findings and discussions in this lesson study will be relevant to all classroom teachers. They suggested that students can learn effectively if teachers are mindful of the learning needs of the students and incorporate learning activities which are thoughtfully crafted. Teachers should also be given more flexibility to make changes to the syllabus when the need arises.

Presentation Code

4Nb Download

Title

A Lesson Study to Explore the Use of Picture Books to Enhance Spoken Interaction in Chinese Language amongst Mixed Aged Group Students

Presenter/s

Wai Foong Corinne Fan

Affiliations

Punggol Green Primary School (Singapore)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson Study In Different Cultural, Subject And Learning Contexts

Time/Location

  Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Collaborative)

Abstract

Teaching and learning amongst mixed-aged group students is seldom seen in Singapore. This paper documents the participation in a lesson study through the use of Picture books to enhance spoken interaction in their second language (Chinese language) amongst mixed aged group students (Kindergarten 1 students, 4-5 years old and Primary 1 students, 6-7 years old).

Through the two cycles of the Lesson Study, the teachers learn that students from different mixed- aged groups are able to work together and interact with one another in a given classroom settings.  It is interesting to find out that the student who has a higher ability in the spoken language would normally lead the group discussion and this does not normally means that the student to lead the discussion has be of an older age.

However, when it comes to group work or group discussion, the teaching approach that best suits this mixed aged group of students of 4-7 years old would be giving them explicit instructions and through cooperative learning. Through cooperative learning, teachers assigned different roles to students in each group and through guided and explicit teaching and the use of picture cues, the different characters in all the groups are able to retell the story.

Presentation Code

4Nc Download

Title

Practice of Lesson Study on the Lessons of English and Kazakh Languages at Nazarbaev Intellectual School IB.

Presenter/s

Tatyana Mashinets and Zhadina Seisenbayeva

Affiliations

Nazarbaev Intellectual School IB (Kazakhstan)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 13:00-14:30pm (Newman Collaborative)

Abstract

The Lesson Study is a new approach of pedagogical activity for Kazakhstan teachers of the mainstream schools. At the same time, the Nazarbaev Intellectual Schools for gifted children where some of their teachers are engaged in various types of research, do not have extensive experience of it. One of the reasons is their participation mostly in Action Research which is better known among our pedagogical community.   A group of interested teachers at NISA IB has decided to take part in the Lesson Study process, because it is flexible: it can be considered as an integrated part of the Action research, solving narrow tasks; and at the same time can be seen as an independent area of pedagogical work.  The primary aim of our Lesson Study was to find out the reasons for our students’ low motivation in fulfilling learning tasks in the lessons. After watching some lessons we realized that we needed a supplementary new direction: to observe the teachers’ class management, because we found out that students could be bored because of their teacher’s weak organization and preparation of the lesson. To begin with teachers used the Case Study method and observed one group of students, who were not active during the lessons. Having watched them for a couple of lessons it was clear that we should change the object of our attention and consider the teacher’s work in a more detailed fashion, therefore the Sequential and Transcription methods were used to watch our colleagues while organizing and conducting their lessons. Initially we expected that the students were not active because of their psychological mood or laziness and it meant that changing the tasks for them would solve the problem, but unexpectedly we found that the teacher’s preparation for the lesson could influence the students’ response even more than students’ mood or reluctance to participate in a lesson.  This made us come to the conclusion that sometimes the passiveness of the students can be rooted in teacher’s inability to manage their students or to think of their lessons as a creative process. At the present time teachers are at the stage where they are studying academic literature, aiming to find out the best international and national practices to be used to improve this situation. The next step will be to work out a program of observation of the teachers’ preparation skills, classroom management and teaching methods and to create some strategies for improvement.

WALS Conference 2016 Programme - Paper Presentations 3

Keynote Speeches | Posters | Paper Presentations 1 | Paper Presentations 2 |  Paper Presentations 3
Paper Presentations 4 | Paper Presentations 5 | Paper Presentations 6 | Paper Presentations 7

Presentation Code

3A

Title

How to Enhance the Professional Learning through Lesson Study – African Experiences in Effective Administration and Facilitation of Lesson Study

Presenter/s

Moderator:

- Mr. Atsushi MATACHI, SeniorAdvisor (Basic Education), Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Japan

Panellists:

- Mr. John Livingstone Makanda, Coordinator of Secondary programme, Center for Mathematics, Science and Technology Education in Africa (CEMASTEA), Kenya

- Mr. Antoine MUTSINZI, Acting Director, Teacher Development and training Unit, Rwanda

- Mr. George CHILEYA, Senior Curriculum Specialist, Mathematics, Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of General Education, Zambia

Discussant:

- Prof. Yumiko ONO, Naruto University of Education, Japan

Type of presentation

Plenary Symposium

Strand

Developing Professional Learning Communities

Time/Location

  Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Room A)

Abstract

Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has supported more than 25 countries in the world in introducing Lesson Study. JICA organized plenary symposiums in the WALS International Conference 2014 in Indonesia and 2015 in Thailand.

In WALS 2016, JICA is organizing a symposium that discusses issues of professional communities and professional learning in Africa. In particular, this symposium will focus on the two aspects: management and facilitation of Lesson Study (LS).

This symposium will discuss effective ways of managing LS and enhancing professional learning through LS by bringing together three panellists from Africa, namely, Kenya, Rwanda and Zambia.

In terms of the aspect of management of LS, the following issues, for example, will be discussed: how to sensitize school managers on the significance of LS, how to motivate teachers to participate in LS, how to secure time for LS, etc.

In terms of the aspect of enhancing professional learning, such issues as how to prepare teachingand learning materials for effective lessons, how to observe research lessons, what and how to discuss a lesson during post-lesson discussions, etc.

In Kenya, LS has been implemented at primary education level in the last 5 years led by Quality and Standards Officers who learned LS in Japan.

In Rwanda, School-Based INSET (SBI) has been implemented at lower secondary level in the last 3 years. Various types of school-based activities including LS have been implemented as SBI.

In Zambia, LS has been implemented at both primary and secondary levels in more than 10 years. At the beginning, LS was introduced in one of the 9 Provinces, which has been expanded to all the 9 Provinces up to now. “Kyozai-Kenkyu” practices have been introduced where teachers study teaching and learning materials intensively for the preparation of LS.

The symposium will be structured as follows:

- A brief introductory presentation to describe overviews of projects on Lesson Study supported by JICA;

- Short presentations about experience in Lesson Study by the Panellists;

- Discussions between the Panellists about effective management and facilitation of LS; and

- Q&A with the floor.

Keyword(s): Continuous Professional Development (CPD), School-based INSET, Kyozai-Kenkyu

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Ba

Title

Using Lesson Study Approach in Finland to Improve Teacher Efficacy and Pedagogical Practices.

Presenter/s

Olli-Pekka Malinen

Affiliations

 

Niilo Mäki Institute (Finland)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Newman Red)

Abstract

Substantial evidence shows that teachers in Finnish schools need new models of professional development. Compared to teachers in most other developed countries, Finnish teachers spend fewer days engaged in professional development activities, and the format of these activities does not effectively support teacher efficacy and professional learning. In OECD TALIS 2013 study 36.6% of Finnish lower secondary school teachers reported that they had never received feedback in their current school (OECD, 2014a, p. 357). The TALIS 2013 results also indicate that the Finnish teachers have very few opportunities for mentoring and peer observation In Finland only 5 percent of lower secondary teachers had engaged in these activities in the past 12 months, making Finland the country with lowest participation (OECD, 2014a, p. 102). Another underutilized form of professional development in Finland is work-related individual and collaborative research. Only 8 percent of Finnish teachers reported participating in this kind of professional development during the past 12 months participation, which was also the lowest reported participation among all participating countries and regions (OECD, 2014a, p. 102).

Lesson Study is a school-based professional development model that has strong potential to address these problems. It is one of the leading approaches to professional development in East Asia, and it is rapidly spreading across many Western countries. Perhaps surprisingly, in Finland no school is currently using Lesson Study. In a proposed project the feasibility and the effects of Lesson Study in Finnish schools will be tested in the proposed project, with a pilot that involves 12 schools around the country. The funding decision for the project will be made in September 2016. At the end of the pilot, the partner schools will have built the Lesson Study capacity to facilitate the class-level implementation of the national curriculum reform and to improve pedagogical practices to meet the needs of all students. As a result of the project, several consultative teachers at the national Valteri Centre for Learning and Consulting will become trained Lesson Study coaches who can spread the Lesson Study model to new schools. The author’s own institution, Niilo Mäki Institute, will also create a selection of training material and professional development courses that support the implementation of Lesson Study around the country.

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Bb

Title

How Schools Can Institutionalize Lesson Study in Practice: Lessons from an Elementary School in Iran

Presenter/s

Nahid Naserinejad and Forouzan Farnia

Affiliations

 

Pishgaman Taghva Educational Institute (Iran)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Newman Red)

Abstract

A growing research literature has indicated that for an authentic professional development to take place, teachers need to learn collegially and while doing, exchange experiences and collaborate with each other rather than passively receiving the knowledge on teaching excellence. However, in Iran, most of the teacher professional development programs are mainly lecture-based.  The practice-based approaches such as conducting workshops and developing teachers through hands-on learning methods as well as active learning are observed here and there, yet they are not widely incorporated.

This paper tries to clarify a case of elementary school from north Tehran, Iran to examine how school can institutionalize a new professional culture in practice. Qualitative research and a case study method were applied for data collection and analysis.

From this study it can be seen how the teachers had interesting and useful topics to talk about in their breaks and the school was becoming a learning organization. It took a while for our teachers to sit together and exchange their experiences comfortably in a safe environment. Our classes which used to be like isolated islands, got connected. The collaborations rose among teachers of different grades and the sharing of experiences led to the improvement of the students’ learning. The parents felt that something has changed, that the new teacher at the beginning of the academic year works hand-in hand with the teacher of the previous grade and a spirit of connection and collaboration has been created across the school.

Throughout the process of lesson study, the teachers learned to assist each other in performing better and realized the value of collaboration. They learned better ways of providing and receiving constructive feedback and the importance of acquiring the new methodologies in teaching and more importantly sharing them with each other. Our teachers learned that observing each other’s classes would help them to use their own teaching competencies and skills better. We realized the importance of effective communication, giving and receiving constructive feedback, collaborative learning and empowering the teachers by involving them in the decision-making process. Finally, we learned that the one-size-fits all solutions won’t solve any of our problems and we needed to craft our own ways of growing out of our limitations and problems.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Ca Download

Title

The Role of Facilitators in a Swiss Lesson Study Professional Development

Presenter/s

Anne Clerc and Stéphane Clivaz

Affiliations

 

HEP du canton de Vaud (Switzerland)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Forum Seminar 1)

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of the two authors acting as facilitators in a lesson study group in Lausanne, Switzerland. This lesson study was a professional development in mathematics for a group. The two authors, one mathematics education and one teaching and learning specialist, worked with this group of eight-grade 3-4 generalist teachers on lesson study cycles in the field of mathematics during two years. The 37 meetings (about 90’ each) have been videotaped and transcribed and will be the basis of the analysis. In this paper, we will cross the data from our research log with the analysis of the interactions conducted during the planning sessions and the debriefing sessions.  The two authors were conducted to adopt various roles: facilitator, trainer, researcher or even teacher. However, these roles were not always made explicit. Yet, they interacted with the teachers’ expectations and with their knowledge of the process and therefore had consequences on the lesson study’s process itself. This paper will analyse the facilitators’ role in interaction with the teachers’ role. These roles will be compared with the ones described by Takahashi in Japan and in US schools (Takahashi, 2014; Takahashi & McDougal, 2016). This analysis will allow identifying potential tensions at stake and distinguishing the influence of the various roles in the run of this particular lesson study.

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Cb Download

Title

The Knowledgeable Other as Final Commentator in Lesson Study Colloquia

Presenter/s

Lai Har Judy Lee

Affiliations

 

Ministry of Education (Singapore)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm ( Forum Seminar 1)

Abstract

Researchers in lesson study have highlighted the importance of having a knowledgeable other to provide teachers with a different perspective on the lesson study work and insights into the subject matter content (Lewis, Perry, Hurd, & O'Connell, 2006).  The knowledgeable other usually provides the final comments to highlight characteristics of the observed research lesson and to tie them back to research in order to put the observations in context of broader issues and big ideas related to teaching and learning (Murata, 2011).  In order to provide effective final comments, the knowledgeable other needs to synthesize the observations and data shared by teachers to present a coherent picture of the students’ learning experiences within the research lesson.  This requires him/her to not only have good knowledge of the addressed topic but to also have the ability to draw upon classroom experiences and to concretize the interconnection between theory and practice.  The provision of effective final commentary can help teachers to rise above the specific observations and data gathered during the research lesson to examine broader issues related to teaching and learning, and to form habits of mind with regard to inquiring into the teaching and learning process.  Despite the importance of the role played by the knowledgeable other, there is lack of research on the work of knowledgeable others and the nature of final commentary in the lesson study literature (Takahashi, 2014).  This paper aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge through a discussion of three aspects of practices related to final commentary: (1) Practice-theory link-making, (2) Questions for teacher reflection, (3) Resources for further exploration.  Informed by the author’s previous research on lesson study and current work serving as knowledgeable other in primary science lesson studies, these strategies will be discussed in light of how the Lesson Study protocol may be used to develop science teachers’ habits of mind as a means of developing themselves to be leaders of inquiry in the science classroom as envisioned by the Science Curriculum Framework.

 


 

Presentation Code

3Cc

Title

  Practice-based Learning in Phenomenographic Perspective

Presenter/s

Airi Rovio-Johansson

Affiliations

 

  University of Gothenburg (Sweden)

  Gothenburg Institute of Research

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

  Developing professional learning communities: models and   practices

Time/Location

  Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Forum Seminar 1)

Abstract

This study wishes to enrich our theoretical understanding of the phenomenon of learning in practice-based learning, when two professional designers from different countries produce a prototype for an exhibition in a week-long work shop. The aim is to investigate how prior learning and knowledge is shared and used in teamwork, in order to explain how it support  the production process of a prototype. A non-dualistic approach to the participants experiences of learning as a change, constitute the framework in trying to understand how learning is made possible in cooperation of professional designers. The theoretical framework of phenomenography is applied in the analysis of semi-structured interviews realized during the work shop. The phenomenographic analysis of four interviews resulted in three qualitatively different categories of learning, namely learning as: (a) learning as a member (identity confirmation) of a profession; (b) learning of new elements in design work; and (c) changing the way of thinking in professional design work/professional development. Research, knowledge and understanding of practice-based informal learning outside existing educational systems are limited. There is a lack of knowledge of how  participants’ prior learning and knowledge, emanating from different professional education in different countries, can be identified, utilized and shared in various professions, work places and manual and non-manual production processes. The limitations of this study consist of: (1) the number of participants and (2) data collected with one qualitative method on one occasion, which was the only possibility in this study. Research, knowledge and understanding of practice-based informal learning outside existing educational systems are limited. Accordingly, further studies are called for on pairs in joint working processes; as well as more participants in the studies; and several professions.

 


 

Presentation Code

3Da

Title

How does Lesson Study Contribute to Teachers’ Collective and Individual Learning

Presenter/s

Hanne Aas and Nina Vasseljen

 

Affiliations

 

Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

                        

Strand

Creating knowledge in practice; action research and other practice based research approaches

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm ( Forum Seminar 2)

Abstract

This paper presents an analysis of teachers learning outcome in a Norwegian school-based research and development project with Lesson Study as method for teachers’ professional development.

In January 2015 we started a school based research & development-project in cooperation with two Norwegian elementary schools.  It is a 3-year interactive action research project. Because Norwegian elementary school is characterized by teachers teaching more than one school subject, the teachers do Lesson Study in interdisciplinary teams. Our research question is: How does Lesson Study contribute to teachers’ collective and individual learning?

The analysis is based on two assumptions about learning:

-Learning is considered a social process where language constitutes both a central tool in the learning process and the place where new knowledge and experience materialize.

-Learning can occur in different levels; from superficial, characterized by consensus and a lack of critique, and deeper, where the team-members critically examine their own beliefs and practices, make tacit knowledge visible and are open to alternatives.

We use a mixed methods research design (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004) with following instruments for collecting data:

  • Surveys prior to, halfway, and at the end of the project        period
  • Audio recordings of preparation meetings and teachers’ meetings
  • Structured logs
  • Methods for analyzing data:
  • Sociocultural discourse analysis (Mercer, 2004)
  • Constant comparative method (Strauss & Corbin, 1998)

The logs confirm that teachers’ experience increased professional competence through shared practice, extended collective planning and new knowledge about pupils’ competences, needs and learning processes.

Despite teachers' agreement on the usefulness of Lesson Study, audio records show variation of learning and reflection levels among the teacher teams. When a teacher asks questions that challenge current practice, it rarely develops to deeper levels of learning. Comparing logs and recordings, the majority of teachers seem to focus on affirming one another and merely trading existing learning resources. Their professional knowledge seems remain tacit and they do not challenge existing practice <br />

The aim of this project is to improve instruction by generating professional knowledge, not by developing a bank of exemplary lessons. Due to this, we have challenged the teachers to exploratory discussions by using Vygotsky’s methodology of double stimulation (Engeström & Sannino, 2010).  Preliminary findings related to this action show tendencies towards deeper levels of learning.

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Db

Title

Rigor in Teachers' Practical Epistemology: A Case Study of Japanese Lesson Studies.

Presenter/s

Yuta Suzuki

Affiliations

 

The University of Tokyo (Japan)

Graduate School of Science

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Creating knowledge in practice; action research and other practice based research approaches

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm ( Forum Seminar 2)

Abstract

The aim of this study is to examine rigor in teachers’ practical epistemology, based on a case study of Japanese lesson studies. Donald Schön explored practical epistemology of professionals (Schön, 1983). His consideration illuminated that professionals, at the fields, developed their rigorous reasoning which differed from the reasoning of scientists. Within schools, teachers discuss the lessons, improve the curriculum and strengthen their professionalism through the lesson studies. The discourse of lesson studies are resource for professional development as well as subsequence of professional development (Lewis, Akita, & Sato, 2010). The lesson study is the locus to examine the nature of the practical epistemology of teachers, especially how rigorous their reasoning are. This study is based on a variety of data obtained from intensive fieldwork in a Japanese school over a period of three years. The data include observational data of research lessons, lesson studies, ordinary activities, interviews with teachers and administrators, and relevant school and classroom documents. This study examines the discourse of the lesson studies, focusing on the following original discursive modes of practical reasoning (Suzuki, 2012): (1) Is the alternative teaching approach better? (2) What is the best way of teaching X? (3) Did the children learn what the teacher intended them to? (4) Did the teacher teach what the children actually learned? (5) What did the teacher learn from watching the children learn? and (6) Did the teacher learn from watching the children learn? This classification that examined the modes of teachers’ practical reasoning on children’s learning in the lesson helps us to examine the rigor in practical epistemology. This study tries to provide suggestions to deepen our understanding of teachers’ practical epistemology in the lesson studies for professional development.

 


  

Presentation Code

3Dc Download

Title

Lesson Study: A school's approach in building a sustainable LS culture.

Presenter/s

Pooganentren Nagalingam and Kai Wai Hsu

Affiliations

 

Hillgrove Secondary School

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

                        

Strand

Leadership, management and policy aspects of lesson study

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm ( Forum Seminar 2)

Abstract

Many schools have implemented lesson study as a key professional learning initiative to improve teaching and learning either in their subject department / levels (year groups) / faculty. Our presentation aims to provide an administrator perspective of how lesson study can be implemented as a whole school initiative.
This paper focuses on a school’s lesson study journey. Hillgrove Secondary School is on its 8th year of its Lesson Study journey. Implementing lesson study as a whole school initiative is challenging and complex. Many schools have tried various approaches and strategies to ensure Lesson Study becomes a sustainable practice for teacher professional development.
We will share our implementation model on lesson study in a secondary / middle school context. We will highlight some of the initial impediments e.g. generating buy-in / getting resources etc. The paper will also discuss how we managed to address them. The implementation model will focus on various strategies to ensure sustainability through the management of resources, collaborating with stake holders, strategies to generate buy-in, training and development programmes and leadership and management processes. Sharing will also include the processes implemented to review the lesson study programme e.g. measurements / indicators of success.
This presentation will add value to schools administrators who are keen in ensuring their Lesson Study journey is sustainable and anyone planning to introduce lesson study in their schools.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Ea Download

Title

Leading the Introduction and Development of Learning Study in an English Secondary Academy

Presenter/s

Lucy Austin

Affiliations

 

Ormiston Victory Academy (United Kingdom)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Leadership, management and policy aspects of lesson study

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Peter Chalk Room 2)

Abstract

Since the initial stages of implementing Learning Study our context has changed significantly. The Academy has: moved premises; had one change of Principal and several other changes in Senior Leadership. Whilst the teacher leading on Learning Study has: moved from part-time teacher with Teaching and Learning Responsibility (TLR); to full-time Curriculum Leader; to Senior Leader; to part-time teacher with TLR. In amongst these changes and many other curriculum developments, we have reached the stage of now offering teachers an in school Learning Study CPD option which they can follow for one year. Lesson and Learning Study has an appeal to English teachers but it does not take long before they begin to realize the significant inherent differences between it and more traditional experiences of CPD. For these teachers to remain invested in this approach a shift in mind set is required which not everyone is necessarily prepared or able to do. However, where this does occur the changes in expectations of future CPD from the professionals involved can be profound.  After five years we are starting to see an impact on teachers. Within this case study I explore whether the ‘impact’ is it everything we expected it to be and what have been the successes, trials and tribulations to date? This article is presented as a case study and uses my personal reflections on the approaches used thus far to implement Learning Study within our specific context as well as a review of data concerning the continuing professional development within our academy along with interviews with those who have and have not taken part. Ultimately we discover that with increasing pressures on time and the need for schools to be data driven, teachers and education leaders have less capacity or ability to take perceived risks. Learning Study is an emerging form of CPD in the UK and even when implemented does not yield a wealth of quantitative data which can be used to prove the impact it can have; consequently implementing Learning Study is perceived as a risk within our profession. Managing the perceptions of this risk is part of the leadership and management challenge of implementing Learning Study within our culture.

 

Presentation Code

3Eb Download

Title

  District Leadership and Lesson Study: A Longitudinal Survey in      Florida

Presenter/s

Bryan Wilkinson and Aki Murata

Affiliations

 

  Florida State University (United States of America)

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

  Leadership, management and policy aspects of lesson study

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Peter Chalk Room 2)

Abstract

Florida is the first state to promote lesson study as a statewide professional development model for implementing the state standards and improving instruction and student achievement, using part of the $700 million Race to the Top (RTTT) grant. Despite the large number of districts and schools practicing lesson study in Florida and across the country, there have been few systematic studies of district policy and practice for promoting lesson study.

The project team conducted a longitudinal online survey of Florida districts in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to examine the district policies and practices for promoting lesson study and the changes in these policies and practices over time. The following research questions were addressed:

1.  How did the district policy and approaches to promoting lesson study and number of schools practicing lesson study change over time?

2.  What variation exists among districts in the scale level of lesson study?

3.  What district policy and leadership practices are associated with the scale level of lesson study?

In summer 2013, 2014, and 2015, professional development coordinators of all 68 districts in Florida were invited to participate in a longitudinal online survey. A total of 53 districts participated in the survey in 2013 (78%), and 58 districts participated in 2014 and 2015 (85%).  District characteristics of the participating districts were similar to the state averages.

The survey data showed that the levels of district requirement, designated leadership position, and funding have decreased from 2013 to 2015. Accordingly, the number of districts that plan to sustain lesson study in the future decreased over the years. However, when the districts reported the actual number of schools that practiced lesson study, more schools were reported to have practiced lesson study in 2015 (749 schools) than in 2014 (668 schools).  We also observed a major variation in the level of scale (percentage of schools within districts that are practicing lesson study) across districts.   

The examination of district policy and leadership associated with scale level of lesson study showed that both lesson study requirement and support (i.e., funding for teacher time) are critical. In addition, having a sustainability plan as an indicator of district long-term commitment to lesson study was found to be key to scaling up lesson study across the district.  Policy and leadership implications for scaling up lesson study practice will be discussed based on these findings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Ec

Title

Sustaining Learning Study in Hong Kong schools

Presenter/s

Yuefeng Zhang

Affiliations

 

The Hong Kong Institute of Education (Hong Kong)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Leadership, management and policy aspects of lesson study

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Peter Chalk Room 2)

Abstract

Learning Study has been implemented for teacher professional development in Hong Kong since 2000. Guided by variation theory, Learning Study has three unique features. First, it focuses on student learning of the object of learning in planning, teaching and reviewing lessons. Second, variation is used as a pedagogical tool for lesson design in the hope of enabling students to discern the critical features. Thirdly, teachers collaborate together throughout the process of planning, teaching and reviewing lessons (Lo, et al., 2005). However, sustaining Learning Study may be inhibited by many challenges, including teachers’ pressures from the examination-oriented system, heavy workloads, pressures from parents and lack of support and trust among staff (Zhang, 2015). How to sustain Learning Study in schools is yet to be explored.  This presentation reports a study investigating the Learning Study practices in two Hong Kong schools (a primary school and a secondary school), which have adopted Learning Study for teacher professional development for over 10 years. The study utilized qualitative research methods including interviews with school leaders and teachers (2 leaders and 4 teachers from each school) and observation of Learning Study activities to identify the forces facilitating and inhibiting Learning Study in the schools. <BR> Content analysis (Northcutt & McCoy, 2004) of the data from interviews and observations was conducted and the data were coded with the theoretical framework in Markee (1997), which categorizes the contextual factors facilitating and inhibiting the sustainability of Learning Study into four aspects: features of Learning Study, macro-context (e.g., socio-economic development, education reform, teacher education), school leadership practices (e.g., understanding and developing staff in the school; designing organization and cultivating a learning culture; managing internal and external resources) and teacher characteristics (e.g., personality, motivation, past experience). The presentation enriches our understanding of the development of Learning Study in Hong Kong schools and provides insights in sustaining education reforms like Learning Study.

 

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Fa Download

Title

Conceptual Understanding in Column Subtraction Algorithms – Critical Features and Aspects

Presenter/s

  Marie Björk, Paul Stensland and Anna Stridfält

Affiliations

 

  Sjöstadsskolan School (Sweden)

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

  Learning studies

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Newman Purple)

Abstract

  Analysis of Swedish students understanding of mathematical concepts and procedures in calculation with column algorithms has shown that student use procedures without reflecting or using conceptual thinking (Bentley, 2008).

The school ”Sjöstadsskolan” is a Swedish elementary school where teachers, since 2010, have used learning study as a model to develop knowledge about students´ understanding of specific learning objects and also how teaching could be designed in relation to this.  Teachers at the Department of Mathematics have identified difficulties to teach written column algorithms in which you subtract a number (the subtrahend) containing higher digits in the position of tens and ones comparing to the minuend, i.e. 423 – 215 or 302 – 273.

The aim of the study was to investigate critical features regarding correct use of column subtraction algorithm and how to design a lesson in order to get these features possible to discern.

The study was conducted with 70 students in year 4 by four mathematics teachers, with support from one of the supervisor at the school. Three lessons were made in accordance to the iterative learning study model. The result showed a better improvement after the third lesson compared to the first two lessons, particularly regarding students in need of special education.

A number of critical features were identified:

1. The value of the positions

2. ”Changing”  is made from the nearest position to the left

3. The remaining value after ”changing” a position is a ten/hundred/thousand less than before

4. The commutative law

5. The relationship between ”changing up” (addition) and “changing down” (subtraction)

Different forms of artifacts were used to vary the critical features, both written column algorithms and manipulatives.

A discussion regarding a critical aspect concerning column algorithms as a structured way to handle the position system when making calculations. Another critical aspect, the ten-base system as one of many base-systems is discussed as a possible, new learning object.  Varying bases might enable the awareness about some critical features of the ten-base system.  

 

Presentation Code

3Fb

Title

Boosting the Tertiary Students' Participation in Research Class through Group Investigation Teaching Model

Presenter/s

Tono Suwartono

Affiliations

 

Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

  Learning studies

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Newman Purple)

Abstract

This study aimed to enhance the tertiary student participation in research class through Group Investigation (GI) teaching model. It was conducted in a collaborative lesson study project. In the study, the author, who was the teacher of Research in Language Teaching course, acted as the model teacher; while a colleague helped plan lessons, served as a classroom observer, and engaged in evaluation. Questionnaires were administered to gather data on student perception of research course before and after GI was applied in instructions. Observation by the colleague was done to collect data on student learning behavior. Test was administered to see learning outcome. Qualitative data from open-questionnaires and observation were analysed inductively by identifying common themes. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. According to initial questionnaires, students’ perception of research course was still negative. However, after the project team had implemented GI, students’ team work (inquiry) gradually improved from lesson to lesson, as particularly indicated by reduced task complaints at the beginning of every lesson. Even though performance of presenting team seemed persistently inequal across members, there has been a slight progress in overall presentation quality from time to time, especially in terms of calmness, problem of reliance on texts and slides, eye-contact, coverage of material, and mastery. The project team made a dramatic change possible in Lesson 4 only after initiating an effort to give students chance to have group discussion prior to Q/A session and mention his/her name while raising hand for reactions. This effort turned out to be powerful! A considerable change in the part of audience was that they learnt better, as can be seen from students’ attention to presentations, dynamic group discussion prior to Q/A sessions, and more varied reactions. It was likely that such discussion before Q/A sessions enabled students to share ideas and develop self-confidence. Furthermore, mentioning identity while attempting to put forward feedback might seem awarded. Interestingly, final questionnaires have shown students’ overall positive reaction as revealed in their voices. Students have supported the teaching model applied in the research course. Out of five items only one received negative response from around a half of class participants. In the meanwhile, with regard to learning outcome, test result was unfortunately still less than expected. However, with current valuable process that both GI teaching model and collaborative lesson study could bring in the research teaching, it would unquestionably give promising learning outcome as well.

Presentation Code

3Fc Download

Title

Choosing kitchen utensils : Sub-project in the comparative study on Lesson and Learning Studies in Sweden and Tanzania

Presenter/s

Carole Pardue and Eva Mårtensson

Affiliations

Mariaskolan (Sweden)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Learning studies

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Newman Purple)

Abstract

Home and Consumer studies in Sweden is a subject aimed at teaching food preparation and consumer issues with focus on health, economy and the environment. Food preparation was our choice for study because it is a major part of the curriculum and few learning studies focus on practical work. Therefore the aim of this study is to examine and develop teaching in food preparation and especially the use of kitchen utensils.

Focus of the enquiry

Observations made prior to this study show that a large number of pupils are not aware of the advantages of using the appropriate utensils.  Making appropriate choices can improve their performance and facilitate their cooking practice.  Handling utensils effectively and safely is also a central part of the core content and the performance standards for Home and Consumer Studies.

 Research methods

 To find out what can facilitate or hinder the effective choice of utensils, four test lessons with different designs were carried out in grade 6 (12 years old). Videos of the lessons and pupils evaluation sheets gave information for analysis which indicated how teaching could be changed to support their learning.

Analytical and theoretical framework

 Analysis of the videos and evaluation forms helped to identify critical aspects of the learning object. Our assumption was that a critical aspect was related to the kind of instructions pupils were given: written, oral, or a combination of both. Another aspect was that an understanding of the technical terms in the recipe – such as slice, peel, grate and cube – was essential for a rational choice of utensils.  Results showed that pupils chose more appropriate utensils after teacher and pupils had read the recipe and discussed which utensils were suitable for each task. Laying out the utensils in the kitchen before the pupils started cooking also contributed to the more efficient use of utensils. Pupils who took part in this lesson reported that they felt more confident in their choices of utensil and could work more effectively. In subsequent lessons, this method led to fewer problems, more effective food preparation and saved time. Repetition of technical words and utensils connected with these words aided learning, especially when these techniques and utensils could be used during preparation of several different dishes.

 

 

Presentation Code

3Ga

Title

Students Answering their Own Questions: Voices from the High School Chemistry Classroom

Presenter/s

Arlene de la Cruz

Affiliations

 

  University of the Philippines (Philippines)

  National Institute for Science and Mathematics Education   Development

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Peter Chalk Room 3: 2.1-2.3)

Abstract

“Mas napapa-isip ako sa pagsagot sa tanong ko” (Celyn, 15)

(9I think more of answering my own questions).

“Nasasagot yung hindi naming naiintindihan” (Ann, 14)

The above 2 statements are part of the several explanations given by third year high school chemistry students during an interview on why they would rather ask questions and answer them instead of the teacher. This presentation discusses the results of the second and third cycles of one of the two high school chemistry lesson study groups in NISMED’s three year lesson study project in a public school in Metro Manila. The focus of the discussion is on the interview responses of the students after the second cycle of the study.

The interview questions are the following:

1. What was your reaction when you were told to make your own question regarding the activities in your chemistry class?

2. What was your reaction when you were told to answer your own questions?

3. Was it difficult for you to ask question and answer your questions? Explain.

4. Which do you prefer: the teacher asking questions or yourself asking the questions? Explain.

5. Did you learn science when you were given an opportunity to ask and answer questions? Explain.

It also includes some comments on teaching and learning science using the voices raised in the classroom, the students’ questions and answers, and lesson study as a professional development activity and research opportunity in teaching science.

 


 

Presentation Code

3Gb

Title

Use of Modelling Instruction as an Approach to Teaching the Physical Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds

Presenter/s

Brian Tan, Syed Aliff Syed Alwi, Min Sen Lee, Wei Jie Heng

Affiliations

 

  Bedok North Secondary School (Singapore)

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

  Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Peter Chalk Room 3: 2.1-2.3)

Abstract

Chemical bonding is a topic that is difficult for students to grasp because it is hard for students to visualize atoms and the forces of attraction between them. The aim of this project was to understand how students perceive ionic and covalent bonds, and relate electrical properties of ionic and covalent substances to their lattice structures, by making thinking visible using whiteboarding and the modelling instruction approach. Whiteboarding supports teachers in engaging students’ prior understandings, and helps students relate factual knowledge to scientific concepts.  <BR>The lesson study approach was chosen, and the department collaboratively considered the learning objectives, planned the lesson and enacted the student learning activities, with a teacher facilitator leading the guided inquiry, and students having to whiteboard their understanding using models of particles. In groups of three, using their proposed models, the students suggest explanations to the phenomena observed i.e. light bulb lighting up when connected to a circuit containing salt solution, and the light bulb not lighting up when connected to a similar circuit containing sugar solution. The teacher questions these explanations and encourages inter-group discussions to refine and deepen their understanding.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Gc

Title

  Improving Students’ Autonomy in Learning Analytical Chemistry     Subject through Creative Problem Solving  and Lesson Study

Presenter/s

Yusnidar Yusuf

Affiliations

 

  Uhamka University (Indonesia)

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

  Impact of lesson study on student learning

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Peter Chalk Room 3: 2.1-2.3)

Abstract

This study was meant to improve students’ autonomy in learning analytical chemistry subject through Creative problem solving and lesson study. The study was conducted in Pharmacy Study Program, and the participants were the students of semester IV A, B and C. This study involved a team of analytical chemistry and sciences lecturers who collaborated with more than six observers. The data of this study were gained from observation, documentation, questionnaire, and interview. The method used in this study was Classroom Action Research by implementing Lesson Study design. The teaching strategy used in this study is the modification of Creative problem solving method. The data showed that there was improvement of students’ autonomy in learning analytical chemistry. Moreover, they enjoy learning. Through lesson study along with the application of creative problem solving method, the classroom atmosphere was more conducive. Their involvement and participation in learning also improved. The lecturers who facilitated the subject also improved their teaching strategy in order that the students achieve the goal of learning. Thus, it can be concluded that the application of Lesson Study design along with Creative problem solving method can improve students’ autonomy in learning analytical subject as well as lecturer’s strategy in facilitating the students to reach the goal of learning.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Ha Download

Title

How Teachers’ Learning Influence Children’s Understanding at GagasCeria Preschool Bandung – Indonesia

Presenter/s

  Ami Aminah

Affiliations

 

  GagasCeria School (Indonesia)

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

Early years education

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Newman Green)

Abstract

When creating a lesson plan, teachers need to understand the content that will be given to children. In practice, there are several obstacles for teachers to master the learning content, such as different interest among teachers, lack of time to explore the content, and difficulties in putting the learning content into a context that is easily understood by children. GagasCeria Preschool has a strategy to overcome the obstacles above. The strategy is set out in the implementation of the curriculum at the stage of preparing the lesson plan. Before creating the lesson plan, teachers should do the process of brainstorming. Brainstorming is intended to enrich and map teachers’ thoughts and insights to suit the learning needs of children. With this activity, the teacher can express ideas and deepen their understanding on the learning content that will be studied with the children. The brainstorming stage is carried out by exploring various books and media related to the learning content, mind mapping, and sharing the ideas with other classroom teachers. In this case study, the author will explain how the three stages of brainstorming activities helps teachers deepen their knowledge about the learning content that will be studied among the children. This case study was conducted in GagasCeria Preschool Bandung – Indonesia.

 


 

 

Presentation Code

3Hb

Title

  Revising the Nuri Curriculum in Korea: Challenges and    Recommendations

Presenter/s

  Mugyeong Moon

Affiliations

 

  Korea Institute of Child Care and Education (South Korea)

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

Early years education

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Newman Green)

Abstract

  The purposes of the study are to examine issues and needs regarding the implementation of the national Nuri curriculum for children at age 3 to 5 in Korea, and to provide recommendations for revision in terms of the general and the specific learning domains as well as explanatory guidelines and materials for teachers.

In particular, the study attempted to strengthen theoretical backgrounds and recent trends of curriculum development, to fortify alignment with primary school curriculum as well as the Standard Childcare Curriculum for 0 to 2, and to provide a more teacher-friendly curriculum.

Two surveys were conducted respectively with 1,250 practitioners and about 50 experts regarding challenges of and needs for the implementation of the Nuri curriculum and directions and specifics of revision. A group of experts in the field provided in-depth discussion and reviews on the general and each learning domain. Furthermore, two regional workshops were held in order to discuss proposed recommendation for revision.

Based on major findings of surveys and expert meetings, a range of recommendations for revising the Nuri curriculum, such as including desirable image of child, emphasizing integral provision of care and education, reducing amount of learning contents, appropriating the difficulty level of contents by age levels, setting an overall goals rather than individual goals for each learning domain, providing detailed guidelines for child assessment, and so on.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Hc Download

Title

The Activities Board as Media for Helping Children to Know their Daily Activities Schedule (Best Practice in GagasCeria Preschool, Bandung, Indonesia)

Presenter/s

  Astri Budi Yusniati

Affiliations

 

  GagasCeria Preschool

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

Early years education

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Newman Green)

Abstract

Every children enter the new school year, children are experiencing a transition phase. Transitions bring changes. One of the changes that occur is the daily activities schedule. In preschool level, the class teacher has not shown daily activities schedule to children. Daily Activities Schedule on lesson plan is known only by the teacher. Yet at the end of preschool age (5-7 years), children need to be introduced to Daily Activities Schedule for preparation to elementary. According to Jean Piaget, the end of preschool-age children (5-7 years) is the transition from pre-operational to concrete operational. Children who are at this age still need things that are concrete while the Daily Activities Schedule is an abstract thing.

So that in this study, the writer who is also a preschool teacher trying to find the right strategy to introduce the Daily Activities Schedule to children in a way that is more concrete. This paper will describe the efforts that have been made by teachers in the classroom in the form of classroom action research. Initial conditions in the classroom showed the children have difficulty understanding the class schedule. Each turn of activity, they always ask to be taken to the classroom teacher. Then the teacher did the first strategy by writing four main activities. Every time the children perform the next activity, the teacher explains the activity type. Children's understanding of the schedule of classes still need to be reminded. In this phase, more teacher provide instruction and the child is still much to confirm. This strategy has not succeeded in improving children's understanding of daily activity schedule so that teachers make improvements. Activity board is the strategy as an improvement from the first strategy. Currently the activities board become a reference to do all the activities. Children already know about the activities that will be done so the flow of activities in the days become more focused. This understanding also gives children the opportunity to remind each of them. The biggest opportunity is given to children who are leaders of the day to be directly involved to steer her classmates. This involvement also builds confidence in a friend. This has an impact on the lack of involvement of teachers in providing instruction to build the child’s independence. 

What was the learning process in the classroom during this study? How was the activities board used? How did the children understand the Daily Activities Schedule using media activities board? The author will present the results of research conducted in GagasCeria Preschool, Bandung-Indonesia, in a descriptive way.

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Ia

Title

  Developing Twenty-First Century Skills through Lesson Study-  Based Classroom Action Research in Plant Physiology Class

Presenter/s

Herawati Susilo

Affiliations

 

  State University of Malang (UM) (Indonesia)

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

  Further and Higher Education

Time/Location

  Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Queen’s Lecture Theatre 2)

Abstract

Almost all of the 2014/2015 graduate students in biology education program at the State University of Malang were fresh graduates of S1 (undergraduate) program in Biology or Biology Education. Those who were Biology Education graduates only have teaching practice experience for a short time (between 1.5 to 3 months) and those who were Biology graduates never practice how to teach. Therefore, in order to develop or improve students' competence in teaching, they need to gain practical field experience. Lesson Study-Based Classroom Action Research (LSbCAR) was conducted in Plant Physiology Class (PPC) at Odd Semester of 2015/2016 to develop 21st century skills to 27 S1 biology students. Four master (graduate) biology education students through Field Teaching Practice (FTP) for 3 months implemented LSbCAR in collaboration with the author. Two students using PBL combined with the use of Concept Map, develop metacognitive skills, the ability to ask questions, the cognitive learning, critical thinking skills, and concept understanding in class of theory. Metacognitive skills measured by a test that is integrated with test for understanding of concepts, the critical thinking skills measured by critical thinking skills tests. In class of theory, understanding of concepts measured through concept maps assessment. Cognitive learning outcomes measured by the test. Two other students in class of practice using Guided Inquiry combined with the use of Flowchart develop skills to inquire, Science process skills, scientific attitudes, concepts understanding and skills to present the results of lab work. Inquiring skills assessed on the Student Worksheet is for the ability to formulate problems and formulate hypotheses. Science process skills, scientific attitudes, and skills to present the results of lab work were measured through observation. The results showed that in the theory class, there were no increase in metacognitive skills of students. Critical thinking skills improved from 54.46 to 60.59. Concept understanding increased from 43.79 to 54.66. Cognitive learning outcomes increased from 72.07 to 78.85. The ability to ask increased from 39.1 to 52.0. In class of practice, the results of Student Worksheet assessment increased from 71.5 to 77.69. Science skills increased from 79.35, to 93.03. The skills of writing flowcharts increased from 83.45 to 86.95. Concept understanding obtained from the tests at the end of learning increased from 87.5 to 91.67. It can be concluded that through LSbCAR the master students of Biology Education were able to practice how to develop Twenty-First Century Skills of students in Plant Physiology Class.

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Ib Download

Title

The Implementation of Lesson Study through Contextual Learning Based on Forest Prototype for Postgraduate Students

Presenter/s

  Muhfahroyin  Muhfahroyin

Affiliations

 

  Muhammadiyah University of Metro (Indonesia)

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

Further and Higher Education

Time/Location

  Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Queen’s Lecture Theatre 2)

Abstract

The objective of the Lesson Study implementation was to improve students’ learning activities and to disseminate Lesson Study for postgraduate students. Learning was conducted in collaboration with different levels of education; where undergraduate students learned Plant Morphology subject and postgraduate students learned Biology Learning Innovation. Learning was conducted contextually by using Learning Forest prototype through Lesson Study. Undergraduate students learned plant morphology, while postgraduate students learned to be planners, observers, and learning reflectors in plan, do, and see activities. This learning implementation improved students’ activities and built learning communities for undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Students learned collaboratively and contextually. Postgraduate students could implement plan, do, and see in the real learning. The research results showed that students were able to implement plan, do, and see properly. Total average of student’s activity grade was 91.11%; 88.89% for plan activity average grade, 93.33% for do activity average grade, and 91.11% for see activity average grade. This good result of Lesson Study implementation was results of good planning and contextual learning. Therefore, to improve students’ learning activities, lecturers can implement Lesson Study through contextual learning based forest prototype to other subject with good planning and context. Furthermore, the Lesson Study can disseminate to the postgraduate program in the real and contextual learning. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Ic

Title

Strengthening Prospective Teacher of Biology on Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (Tpck)

Presenter/s

  Evi Suryawati and Yenita Roza

Affiliations

 

  University of Riau (Indonesia)

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

  Further and Higher Education

Time/Location

  Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Queen’s Lecture Theatre 2)

Abstract

This research is conducted for strengthening Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) of prospective teacher of Biology based on Indonesian National Qualifications Framework (NQF). The research is done to fulfill Indonesian government's policy on NQF where college of education graduate must meet level-6 for undergraduate program and level-7 for the educational profession program. This development research aims to design and develop a model to enhance competence and competitiveness.  College of Education graduates to meet the professional, social and industrial needs. This research used ADDIE model with the stage of analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluation. This paper discusses the preliminary study of developed models for the Department of Biology and Mathematics that conducted through a survey of 240 students from four different college of education in Province of Riau Indonesia. Data were collected through tests, questionnaires and interviews. Instrument used contains seven variables of knowledge, namely Technology, Pedagogy, Content, Technology Pedagogy, Technology Content, Technology knowledge and Technology Pedagogy Content. This instrument has been tested for validity and reliability. Based-on the data analysis two product were generated, the first is lesson design of an integrated learning in education and professional courses, the second is Workbooks, problem for student drill and practice and teacher competency test. Research is still ongoing to produce the model for strengthening TPCK for prospective teacher of Mathematics and Science Teacher.

 

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3J Download1 Download2 Download3

Title

  Lesson Study in Special Education in Singapore

Presenter/s

Christina Michael, Christine Lee, Pete Dudley, Martina Kueh Bee Huah, Mardina Bte Mohd Ithnin, Desiree Tay Sirui, Shanice Liang, Ester low, Gladys Khoo

Affiliations

 

  Ministry of Education (Singapore)

Type of presentation

  Symposium

Strand

Special needs and inclusive education

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Newman Blue)

Abstract

Paper 1: Supporting the Adoption of Lesson Study for Special Education Schools in Singapore.  (Christina Michael & Michael Chua,Special Education Branch, Ministry of Education, Singapore)

There are limited opportunities for professional development for special education teachers in Singapore. Special Education Branch, Singapore Ministry of Education has pioneered the adoption of Lesson Study by special education schools in response to the need for more school-based professional development that are contextualized and adapted to the needs of these schools serving a diverse range of disability profiles of students. The goal is to build a collaborative community of inquiry-based practice that is teacher-led. Lesson Study, as one of the approaches used to achieve this end, serves to develop teachers’ craft of teaching and their inquiry into their practice. The Singapore Ministry of Education in collaboration with the National Institute of Education implemented a tiered model of professional development to support the implementation of lesson study in special education schools. The model systematically deepens teachers’ understanding of the nature and purpose of Lesson Study as well as its principles and processes. Teachers also learn about the dispositions and habits of mind necessary to observe student learning and interpret data to improve lesson design and student learning. In the final phase, a team of teachers in a school is supported in the implementation of a lesson study cycle from planning, observation, enactment and reflection by external resource persons. A network among participating schools is developed through sharing sessions, visits to local mainstream schools and participation in WALS-JTB Lesson Study Immersion Program. This paper will share the efforts made in advancing lesson study as an approach to the professional development of special education teachers in Singapore and the lessons learnt.

Paper 2: Lesson Study for Teaching of Moral Values to Teenagers with Mild Intellectual Disability.  (Lisa Goh, Esther Low, Gladys Khoo & Shanice Liang, Grace Orchard School, Singapore)            

Schools need to do their very best to nurture each child so that they can reach their fullest potential, grounded on sound values and character (MOE Singapore, 2016). Grace Orchard School which is a special education school for students with mild intellectual disability and/or autism envisions its students to be individuals who are anchored in values and prepared for life. The school places much emphasis on the provision of Character and Citizenship Education (CCE) for every student, with CCE lessons and related activities accounting for 12.5% of its curriculum time. Lesson Study was introduced as a professional development platform to help teachers improve the quality of the CCE lessons as they play a significant role in developing the right values in the students. The following questions were core to our lesson study: what are the essential features of a good CCE lesson and how can we help students who struggle with abstract concepts and social competencies understand the underlying values within CCE lessons? This paper will provide a narrative of the lesson study journey taken by the school in a non-academic area. It will also suggest a model, with specific examples, for teaching moral values to students with mild intellectual disability in a manner that is meaningful and engaging for them. It will highlight the impact of the lesson study experience in and beyond the classroom, for the individuals and communities of learners (both teachers and students) within the school. This experience confirms the school’s belief in lesson study as a suitable and viable professional learning platform for teachers.

Paper 3:  Learning from collaborative, reflective and iterative lesson study with special education students in a school in Singapore. (Teo Lay Heong, Jennifer, Desiree Tay Sirui, Mardiana Binte Mohamed Ithnin, Martina Kueh Bee Hua, Lily Yip, Tanglin School, Singapore)

This paper will explore (a) teachers’ perspectives of lesson study used to develop a series of lessons to teach goal setting in a social emotional learning program, and (b) students’ responses during the enactment of the research lessons.  Goal setting is selected because it is a significant outcome that is valued by people with disabilities for adult living and has been found to improve task performance through developing the sense of control, ownership and autonomy. Students with disabilities require opportunities to learn the skills necessary to make sound choices, evaluate decision and solve problems. This lesson study cycle involves 6 teachers who met for planning, observation and discussion of the research lessons and the whole cycle was documented. Four students, aged 15 years old, with mild intellectual disability and an IQ range between 50 and 70 were also interviewed. Documentation of this process allows for critical reflection on teacher professional learning and student learning development in the next iteration. Findings revealed that teachers need to adopt an inquiry stance through restructuring their knowledge and beliefs and integrating new information in their practice. Through an iterative process of collaborative observation and analysis, greater insights into the needs of their students, the curriculum and teaching strategies emerged. This experience demonstrated that lesson study as a model for teacher professional development has engaged the teachers meaningfully with inquiry into teaching and holds much promise for social emotional education but its implementation is not without obstacles.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Ka Download

Title

  Innovation in educational system of Kazakhstan through Lesson        study

Presenter/s

  Arman Imansharipova

Affiliations

 

  Nazarbayev Intellectual school of Astana of the AEO (Kazakhstan)

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

Innovative uses of lesson study

Time/Location

  Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 1:1.1-1.3)

Abstract

Due to changes in the modern educational system of Kazakhstan, new requirements are being imposed on our school teachers (Nazarbayev Intellectual School). Lesson analysis has shown me that I need to change my teaching style and collaboratively work with my colleagues. Lesson Study helps me to rethink both my teaching practice and that of my colleagues. My participation in the workshop held by Dr.Hiroyuk KUNO, Nagoya University, Japan can help me to focus on this form of research. In our school we teach science subjects in English as a second language of communication. That is why it is one of the problems in our school to develop communication skills in parallel with other Learning skills. The general problem selected by the group of science teachers and me at my school is formulated as “How to Develop Communication Skills at a Science Lesson?” For the purpose for solving the problem, our Research Team has implemented CLIL at Science lessons. Lesson Study helped to focus on this Learning. That is why the aim of our research was the following: To develop students’ communication skills at science lessons through Lesson study. Expected results:  Creating a collaborative environment; Teachers from the Science Department have been invited to take part in the Lesson Study, which involves some specific steps: Group members have learnt special literature about the Lesson Study;  We have identified the research class and three candidates among students who will be on at the forefront at the research lesson – a highly motivated student, B-middle, C-low motivated; We have planned a series of research lessons to be observed; We have identified teachers who will teach research lessons, while others shall observe and make some written notes;Teachers have interviewed some students to get their views and opinions about research lesson’s effectiveness;  They carried out discussion after lessons. The following methods have been used: Case student method used in Biology, Transcription method – in Physics, Seating map method, time-sequential method – in Chemistry Lessons. In interview and reflection teachers shared with difficulties and advantages in different methods. Having looked through the video tutorials together with teachers, we have analyzed what we have succeeded in and what difficulties we have coped with and what we are to improve now. Upon the analysis results, we have concluded that the Lesson Study helps us to develop communication skills among our students at our lessons. The article describes the Professional Collaboration Growth developed through the Lesson Study. The article reflects the main stages of the Lesson Study, completed via the methods of information analysis and observation, interview, survey, and reflection. Reflection is one of the main characteristic of the Lesson Study, which allows my colleagues to see their strong and weak points in their teaching & learning practice. To analyze the effectiveness of the Lesson Study, teachers were asked to carry out the questioning survey: 1. What changed since you have implemented the Lesson Study in your teaching practice? 2. Do you consider that the Lesson Study Research is effective in the teaching practice? 3. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the Lesson Study Methods. 4. In your opinion, which method is the most effective? 5. Why Lesson study – collaborative approach to learning? How does the Lesson Study allow you to change your teaching practices? In your opinion, what is so special? While analyzing the teacher’s answers, I have made the following conclusions:  Lesson Study allows teachers to see the strengths and weaknesses of their teaching, and make some corrections in their practice; Lesson Study is a most effective way of Professional Development; Lesson Study helps to improve student communication and other Learning skills at our lesson;- Lesson preparations take longer time than usually and teacher needs more time for observing the lessons than usually.

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Kb Download

Title

Improving and Evaluating CPD with Lesson Study

Presenter/s

  Gabriele Isak and Barbara Hanfstingl

Affiliations

 

  University College of Teacher Education (Austria)

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

  Innovative uses of lesson study

Time/Location

  Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 1:1.1-1.3)

Abstract

 “Lesson study” is a heterogeneous complex of variety of research, namely humanities, social sciences, behavioral sciences, and even educational technologies. However lots of such lesson studies have commonality.  That is they use speech transcripts from lessons or observational data of lessons. Needless to say such data are linguistic and qualitative. Qualitative study also has a long tradition. It is highly developed with methodological accumulation which can be applied to various research topics. But methodological outcome of qualitative study has been rarely used in lesson studies.  On the other hand, lesson study has developed its own various methods of data analysis that could be applied in qualitative studies. But they are not well known to qualitative researchers. This gap in communication between lesson study and qualitative study is not beneficial for both studies.

The study asks the following research questions:

 1. What are the similarities and differences of both research frameworks and data analysis methods? 2. What kind of research methods, methodology, frameworks of qualitative study can be applied in lesson study, and vice versa.  The author discusses the above topics citing the important literature on lesson study and qualitative study. As the analytical and theoretical framework, the epistemology and ontology of qualitative research methodology are applied in this study. Lesson study can be seen as a particular type of qualitative study. As for qualitative study, data analysis methods, conceptual/theoretical frameworks, and methods of presentation of findings of qualitative study can be effectively applied in lesson studies. At the same time, those of lesson study would be used in qualitative studies. It would be beneficial if we could promote such interactions between both studies.

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Kc

Title

Lesson Study and Qualitative Study: The Significance of their Interaction

Presenter/s

  Takashi Otani and Yoshiaki Shibata

Affiliations

 

Nagoya University

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

  Innovative uses of lesson study

Time/Location

  Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 1:1.1-1.3)

Abstract

Background to the topic

 “Lesson study” is a heterogeneous complex of variety of researches, namely humanities, social sciences, behavioral sciences, and even educational technologies. However lots of such lesson studies have commonality.  That is they use speech transcripts from lessons or observational data of lessons. Needless to say such data are linguistic and qualitative.

 Qualitative study also has a long tradition. It is highly developed with methodological accumulation which can be applied to various research topics. But methodological outcome of qualitative study has been rarely used in lesson studies.

 On the other hand, lesson study has developed its own various methods of data analysis that could be applied in qualitative studies. But they are not well known to qualitative researchers. Such dis-communication between lesson study and qualitative study is unbeneficial for both studies.

Research questions/focus of the enquiry

 So this research tries to discuss followings.

How common and how different both research frameworks and data analysis methods are.

What kind of research methods, methodology, frameworks of qualitative study can be applied in lesson study, and vice versa.

Analytical and/or theoretical framework

 As analytical and theoretical framework, epistemology and ontology of qualitative research methodology are applied in this study.

Research findings and/or contribution to knowledge

 Lesson study can be seen as a peculiar type of qualitative study. And as far as it is qualitative study, data analysis methods, conceptual/theoretical frameworks, and methods of presentation of findings of qualitative study would be effectively applied in lesson studies. At the same time, those of lesson study would be used in qualitative studies. It would be beneficial if we could promote such interactions between both studies.

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3L

Title

Expanding Learning Community and Lesson Study in Fukui: Findings from LSIP

Presenter/s

Toshiya  Chichibu, Hiroyuki Watanabe and Yu Kimura

 

Affiliations

 

National Institute for Educational Policy Research (Japan)

Type of presentation

Symposium

Strand

Developing professional learning communities: models and practices

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Queen’s Lecture Theatre 1)

Abstract

This symposium tries to explore the school culture and the lesson study system in Fukui. Why did we choose Fukui? We did so because this prefecture has a high level of lesson study and educational performance in Japan. National research shows that Fukui Prefecture has continuously yielded very good results in scholastic ability and physical strength among children. Almost all schools in Japan conduct a lesson study, but the frequency and strategy of the lesson study differ among prefectures. For example, in some schools, lesson studies are conducted without a lesson plan discussion and with a poor post-lesson discussion. In lesson studies in Fukui, teachers prepare lesson plans carefully, discuss them with their colleagues, observe the research lesson, and discuss it with all the teachers in school. External advisers from municipalities in Fukui are dispatched to lesson studies to facilitate discussions and improve research lessons. Now, Fukui Prefecture is known as one of the best prefectures in Japan in terms of education. More than 2,000 teachers from all over the country visit the prefecture to observe classes and learn about the education system in Fukui. <BR>The Lesson Study Immersion Program (LSIP) was planned for Singaporean educators interested in learning how a lesson study was implemented in Japanese schools in the 2015 academic year. In this program, Singaporean participants observed how a lesson study was carried out in Japanese schools in Fukui: from the conduct of research lessons to post-lesson discussion. Translation was provided for the participants and they had the opportunity to discuss their observations further and ask questions to experts in Japanese lesson study. After the LSIP2015, the participants were asked to provide feedback, and they stated that, while observing, they were impressed by the research lessons and post-lesson discussions in Fukui schools.  This symposium tries to present (1) Fukui schools’ management and teaching methods, (2) the partnership between Fukui schools and the University of Fukui, and (3) analysis of the feedbacks from the LSIP2015 participants. Fukui Schools’ Management and Teaching Methods Hiroyuki Watanabe, Fukui Prefectural Board of Education, Japan.    The central cultural feature of Fukui schools is their collegiality. Teachers in Fukui schools help each other; they communicate and collaborate actively. In the elementary schools, grade teams constitute teachers’ basic communities, while, in the middle schools, subject teams play the same role. Teachers attending grade teams or subject teams discuss curricula as well as unit plans and homework schedules. Moreover, they share ideas regarding instruction methods or student information. <BR>With the collaboration of their teachers, students can share their schools’ visions. For instance, they can maintain high levels of discipline. They can also follow the school schedule; thus, almost all students are able to take their seats and to learn on their own before lessons begin. Desks are set and bags are arranged on shelves in a highly organized manner. In addition, the students maintain good posture during lessons and clean their classrooms by themselves. The principals of Fukui schools manage their schools according to the PDCA cycle. They develop their management plans with lesson study in the school year and revise them according to the lesson study outcomes or to those of school evaluations. Lesson study in Fukui schools is part of the school management system. The Partnership between Fukui Schools and the University of Fukui

Yu Kimura, Fukui University, Japan

The DPDT (Department of the Professional Development of Teachers) in the University of Fukui’s Graduate School of Education implements “school-based” teacher education. Our mission and activities cultivate PLCs (professional learning communities). They include the improvement of lesson study in our partner schools, building reflective institutions for the sustainable development of PLCs for reflective practitioners, and nurturing new teachers in the age of knowledge society. During this symposium, we will make a presentation regarding the system of partnership between Fukui schools and the DPDT. We will focus on the results of collaborative research between the department and a partner elementary school that has developed its lesson study process as one of its professional development activities. This elementary school started its children-centered lesson study efforts by collaborating with the DPDT. The school’s teachers observe and take note of how children learn in the classroom. Moreover, they discuss the relationship between the children’s learning and their teaching efforts using observation notes and tags, which they describe in their records of children’s learning during their lesson study. Longitudinal teachers’ initiatives and efforts to cultivate professional learning communities in the school have contributed to the development of this lesson study style.  Analysis of the Feedbacks from LSIP2015 Participants Toshiya Chichibu, National Institute of Educational Policy Research, Japan<BR>The feedbacks of LSIP participants showed that they were impressed by their observation of Fukui schools. The first point among their findings was that Fukui schools had an “open classroom culture,” which made lesson observation easy. Teachers in Fukui were willing to observe their colleagues’ classrooms, and they did not hesitate to allow their colleagues to observe them. The second point was that Fukui teachers had “open mind to accept critiques” of colleagues. They made the effort to accept criticism without threatening others. In the post-lesson discussion, the teachers tried to share their findings within the scheduled time. The third point concerned the management of the post-lesson discussion. The facilitator managed the discussion well. Fukui schools have a supportive and collaborative culture that encourages the expansion of the learning community through lesson study.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Ma

Title

Lesson Study as Professional Culture in Japanese Elementary School: A Historical Perspective on Elementary School Practices.

Presenter/s

Keisuke Fukaya

Affiliations

 

Chubu University (Japan)

College of Contemporary Education

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 4:2.4-2.6)

Abstract

Lesson study as a professional culture in Japanese education has a long history. During the Meiji era (1868-1910), it was necessary that Japan absorb and learn from the educational methods of the West in order to create a modern educational system better suited to the needs of the modern state. Lesson study also enabled Japanese teachers to realize, reflect upon, and sustain meaning in their classroom environment, and in pupil learning activities. This pedagogical awareness transpired as a result of the accumulation of formal lesson study, but it also arose out of the informal reflection of individual teachers. The way of viewing pupils as described in Isomura’s geography lesson plans, for example, was achieved through continuous reflection on teaching (Sarkar Arani et al., 2010). It would appear, therefore, that lesson study came to constitute an essential aspect of school culture and teachers’ professional development by the late Taishō (1920’s) and early Shōwa (1930’s) eras, and the educational journals served to deepen mutual exchanges between schools throughout Japan. Certainly, the culture of lesson study was formed through classroom instruction of teachers at schools across Japan. School teachers taught lessons based on their individual views of education, and they openly shared their views on educational improvement both inside their schools and with society at large (Sarkar Arani et al., 2010).

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Mb

Title

The Global Circulation of Lesson Study and Its Impact on the Japanese Discourse: Meta-Analysis of Japanese Literature on Lesson Study

Presenter/s

Takayo Ogisu

Affiliations

 

Nagoya University (Japan)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 4:2.4-2.6)

Abstract

This paper tries to explore what changes global circulation of lesson study has brought to the discourse produced in Japan about lesson study. After Stigler and Hiebert wrote about lesson study in English in 1999, “Japanese lesson study” has quickly been circulated worldwide. A lot of discourses about lesson study have been produced both inside and outside Japan, and its mechanisms and effectiveness have been well explored. However, we know little about what happened to its origin—how Japanese stakeholders have reacted to such recognition from the rest of the world and how they shape or reshape their ideas about lesson study. Exploring the changes in the Japanese discourse about lesson study helps us understand the dynamic process of global circulation of an educational practice—lesson study—and reminds us that lesson study is still evolving.  This paper is a part of larger study about global circulation of lesson study, in which I am exploring when, by whom, and why lesson study has been borrowed/lent. The current paper presents the results of meta-analysis I conducted based on the 126 articles and books on lesson study published in Japanese language after 1999. In order to understand the general characteristics of this body of literature, I categorized them based on (1) geographical area, (2) subject matter, (3) education level, and (4) main argument, and then conducted quantitative analysis to identify how discourses have changed over almost two decades. As a result, I could divide this period into three phases: first phase (1999-2004), second phase (2005-2009), and third phase (2010-). I also conducted qualitative text analysis in order to identify what actually have been discussed in each phase. It turned out that the nature of discourse has changed gradually. First phase discourses are characterized with intentions to identify “true” and “authentic” lesson study by referring to “problematic” practices in other places. In the second phase, it became the one trying to establish and disseminate a lesson study model that can easily be implemented in other countries. And finally, in the third phase, people came to discuss the importance of pursuing mutual learning relationships with other countries through lesson study.

The above results suggest that global recognition of lesson study not only raised awareness among Japanese stakeholders about the uniqueness of Japanese education tradition, but also prepare them for using lesson study as a tool to exchange educational practices and ideas globally.

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Mc

Title

  Three Lesson Study Methods Developed in Japan with their  Characteristics and Pedagogical Implications

Presenter/s

Shizuo Yoshizaki

Affiliations

 

  Japan Women's University (Japan)

  Research and Development Center for Teacher Education

Type of presentation

  Paper presentation

Strand

  Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Peter Chalk Rm 4:2.4-2.6)

Abstract

Three lesson study methods developed in Japan with their characteristics and pedagogical implications

Dr. Shizuo YOSHIZAKI (Professor, Japan Women’s University)

Lesson study has a long history in Japan and many lesson study methods are based on four phases: lesson planning, practice, evaluation, and improvement have been developed. Lesson study has also been considered central to teachers’ professional development for a long time. The key concepts in lesson study are fellowship, collaboration, and apprenticeship.

 In this paper, I discuss three lesson study methods that were developed collaboratively by educational researchers and teachers. Each method has its own characteristics and pedagogical implications.

The first method is Mizukoshi’s (1987) “Model of Anticipating Students’ Thought Processes.” In this method, teachers predict students’ responses prior to teaching and make students’ thought process model. Teachers can then create the unit plan based on said model. This method helps teachers do lesson planning. Furthermore, this method increases teachers’ knowledge regarding the subject-matter, the pedagogy, and their students.

The second method is called the “stimulated–recall procedure,” which was developed by Yoshizaki (1997). In this method, students are videotaped from the back of the classroom. They are also required to recall their cognitive and affective processes during the lesson when they view the recording. This method helps teachers elicit significant information from the students’ reports and reflect on their instructional practices. This method can also alter teachers’ knowledge regarding subject-matter, pedagogy, and their students.

The third method is called “workshop-style lesson study,” as developed by Murakawa (2010). Here, observers of the lesson collect data by writing memorandums on tag paper. After the lesson, observers are divided into groups of three, four, or five members to summarize the observation data. Four different methods (i.e., enlarge lesson plan sheet method, matrix sheet method, conceptualized sheet method, and K-J method) are used for data summarization. This method helps teachers collect crucial information on how to improve their pedagogy. This method also changes teachers’ understanding regarding subject-matter, pedagogy, and their students.

 To conclude, the first method focuses on the lesson planning phase, while the second and third methods respectively focus on the lesson practice the lesson evaluation phases. However, it is crucial that every method will contribute to the lesson improvement and the professional development of teachers.

 

 

 

Presentation Code

3Na

Title

Implementing Japanese Lesson Study on Filipino Teaching Community: Developing Problem Solving and Mathematical Reasoning Abilities among Grade Five Pupils

Presenter/s

Cristina Agliam

Affiliations

 

Clementi Town Secondary School (Singapore)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/ Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Newman Collaborative)

Abstract

Teachers in traditional Science classrooms tend to use the lecture format and logical, sequential problem solving as their key instructional methods. These methods often honor only certain learning styles of the learners, while neglecting others. The 4MAT (4 Mode Application Technique), which was developed by Bernice McCarthy in 1987, is an 8-step, sequential instructional model that helps teachers to tap on the unique learning style that each learner brings to the classroom, while helping them to develop in other ways of learning. The 4MAT model is based on Kolb’s Experiential Learning model and the concept of brain hemisphericity.  The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the 4MAT teaching model on learner engagement in the Science classroom. A team of Science teachers utilized the 4MAT framework to design two lesson units (one in Biology and another in Chemistry) that appeal to all four types of learners – innovative learners (Type 1), analytic learners (Type 2), common sense learners (Type 3) and dynamic learners (Type 4). The lessons were presented to the learners using both the right and left mode operating techniques, so that all four types of learners can learn using their individual type of learning style, and yet have the opportunity to also develop other learning styles.   In the research lessons, it was observed that learners were more engaged affectively, behaviorally and cognitively. Results using t-test indicate that students from the project fared better than regular groups in terms of their performance in end-of-unit assessments. Qualitative data collected in the form of written responses from the students in the project validated their positive response to the 4MAT model of teaching. Besides the research findings, the presenters would also be sharing their learning points in the various phases of Lesson Study and the challenges encountered by the research team.

 

 


Presentation Code

3Nb

Title

Learning Studies in Sweden and Tanzania – Similarities and Difference in Objects of Learning and Critical Aspects

Presenter/s

Inger Eriksson and  Viveca Lindberg

Affiliations

 

 Jönköping University (Sweden)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Newman Collaborative)

Abstract

Learning studies (LS) and Lesson studies have a common interest regarding development of teaching. Lesson study is basis also for LS, combined with ideas from design experiements (Marton 2014). One of the difference between the two is that in LS pre- and posttests are often used to get an input value of students’ knowing, as well as a learning outcome value after a certain intervention is performed. According to Pang and Marton (2003), one of the five steps of a LS is ascertaining students’ actual knowing, by an analysis of students’ conceptions or a pre-lesson test. Since these tests are emphasised as an essential ingredient in LS, the purpose of this paper is firstly to describe findings from a review of Swedish and Tanzanian LS (theses) in relation to the kinds of tests used and their purposes, and secondly to problematize such tests as method for exploring students learning.

Comparative analyses of the information about the pre- and post-tests in relation to the  learning object(s) in focus as well as of the purposes or functions of these tests were made in order to find patterns used for categorisation of types of pre and post-tests on the one hand, and functions of these on the other. Initial findings indicate that the pre and post-tests used vary from traditional paper and pen tests to semi/structured interviews, observations and video recorded lessons. Also the purposes for which they are used seem to vary. Furthermore, the language and praxis of testing seems to have been adopted in several studies without the necessary basis of test-construction. However, the idea of mapping students’ actual knowing as a of departure for specifying the object of learning, and for identifying possible critical aspects for learning and instruction is clearly motivated.  While some studies used learning studies in order to measure their effects, others have an interest  in changing teaching in order to enhance learning. While the former types of LS need to elaborate the relation between the learning object(s) and the test(s) constructed (validity issues), as well as consider the statistical basis for their analyses, the latter types of LS could benefit from using a language better fit to these kinds of purposes. If the purpose is to become aware of students’ various ways of understanding the learning object and thereby the challenges for teaching then the issue is how to explore students’ knowing. In these cases LS can give substantial contributions to issues of formative assessment.

Presentation Code

3Nc

Title

Lesson Studies of CMOs Charter Schools: How CMOs affect Charter Schools’ Lesson

Presenter/s

Takaaki Horai

Affiliations

 

 Takada Junior College (Japan)

Type of presentation

Paper presentation

Strand

Lesson study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Time/Location

Sunday 4th September 10:30-12:00pm (Newman Collaborative)

Abstract

The purpose of this study is Examine the function of the charter school network as a learning community and examine the influence of Charter Management Organizations (CMOs) on lesson plans developed in charter schools. CMOs are non-profit organizations that establish charter schools and operate them. Since this trend is akin to privatization of education, this study discusses the impact of privatizing education by considering the charter school network and the lesson studies of charter schools under CMOs.

 Although charter schools are public schools, they are not restricted by the many regulations of the state, county, or even district for public entities. Easing the regulation on charter schools has made, CMOs become key players in sharing better educational practices using the charter school network and in providing various resources, such as curriculum development, class instructions, and personnel management, and in improving the learning environment.

 This study focuses on how CMOs create a charter school network and how the network affects charter school lessons, specifically in use of resources, curriculum design, and teaching methodologies. First, the number of charter schools and the recent data on CMOs are presented to understand their development. Second, the privatization framework and the data on charter schools as well as CMOs are discussed. By conducting a data analysis, the study then examines the process by which CMOs force charter schools to adopt their viewpoints with regard to the autonomous lesson plans developed by the charter schools.

 The following are the findings from this study.

1) CMOs help charter schools develop better lesson plans (in mathematics, language, and computer-assisted instructions) and promote professional skills by providing them rich resources. Charter schools run by CMOs are important contributors to training and development, particularly in low economic areas.

2) Each charter school operated by CMOs is part of a huge network of such schools. Therefore, these schools are able to share their autonomous lessons or educational experiences with other public schools to improve the quality of education across the state.

3) However, there exist hierarchical relations or power structures between charter schools and CMOs that influence decision making, personnel management, and school operations in their entirety. Charter schools are officially independent; however, their lessons are greatly affected by CMOs’ decisions or their network pressures and, consequently, they may have to replace their autonomous lessons to comply with the CMOs’ decisions.

WALS Conference 2016 Programme - Paper Presentations 5

Keynote Speeches | Posters | Paper Presentations 1 | Paper Presentations 2 |  Paper Presentations 3
Paper Presentations 4 | Paper Presentations 5 | Paper Presentations 6 | Paper Presentations 7

Presentation Code

5A

Title

Critical Process for Supporting Teachers to Establish Professional Communities Using Lesson Study: Case Studies from the Project IMPULS Collaborations with UK, US, and Qatar

Presenter/s

Akihiko Takahashi, Toshiakira Fujii, Naoko Matsuda, Geoffrey Wake and Shelley Friedkin

Affiliations

DePaul University (United States of America)